Periodic Reporting for period 3 - ORCA (Optimised Real-world Cost-Competitive Modular Hybrid Architecture for Heavy Duty Vehicles) Reporting period: 2019-10-01 to 2021-09-30 Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project The ORCA Project proposal addresses topic GV-03-2016, of the Transport Work Programme. The work proposed, in a single coordinated project, addresses all the aspects of the domain 2 “For pure and plug-in hybrids, power-train system integration and optimisation through the re-use of waste heat, advanced control, downsizing of ICEs, innovative transmissions and the integration of electronic components” regarding Heavy Duty Vehicles.The activity proposed is being conducted by an 10-member consortium from 6 different European Members States representing all requested competencies in the field of powertrain optimization for Heavy Duty vehicles. The consortium comprises OEMs with IVECO-ALTRA, CRF and VOLVO (also members of EUCAR, suppliers VSCM, BOSCH and BLUWAYS, leading Engineering and Technology Companies/organizations and Universities with TNO, FRAUNHOFER, and VUB (EARPA). The majority are also active members of ERTRAC and EGVIA.The overall project objectives are to: • Reduce the TCO to the same diesel vehicle TCO level, targeting over 10% system cost premium reduction compared to actual IVECO hybrid bus and VOLVO conventional truck with the same performances, same functionalities and operative cost, and also targeting up to 10% rechargeable energy storage (RES) lifetime/energy throughput improvement. • Improve the hybrid powertrain efficiency up to 5% compared to actual IVECO hybrid bus and conventional truck through optimized RES selection & sizing and by improving the energy and ICE management.• Reduce the fuel consumption by 40% compared to an equivalent conventional HD vehicle (bus & truck).• Downsize the ICE by at least 50% compared to actual IVECO hybrid bus and VOLVO conventional truck.• Improve the electric range from 10km to 30km by adding the PHEV capabilities and optimising the RES capacity.• Case study assessment to replace a diesel engine by a CNG engine for future heavy-duty vehicles. Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far • Definition of requirements and specifications, including a review of RES technology;• Definition of the optimisation approach and requirements for models and data inputs;• In accordance with the project approach, the axle electrification options were explored;• In accordance with the project approach, the architecture and topology of the vehicle has been defined;• The exploitation plan has been developed and will further be updated as the project progresses;• The project website was developed, several newsletters have been sent and dissemination activities have taken place;• The back-office and the online reporting and monitoring platform has been set-up and maintained;• The establishment of the End User Group and Advisory Board have been defined and done;• Definition of the optimization framework for powertrain sizing and control strategies; • Design and build up of the demonstrator vehicles (truck with e-axle and bus with integrated hybrid transmission) is on-going. • During this period, the project achieved significant steps in terms of defining the optimisation framework, including dissemination activities in various papers to disseminate the work. The optimisation framework forms the core systems approach to the co-design of the heavy duty hybrids and will be reviewed and re-visited during the validation and verification phases and in the later tasks of Work Package 5.Additionally, during this period, a core technology was developed in the form of the modular energy management tool. This method is important since it provides an automated way to define an optimal control method during the optimisation process. The tool has the following attributes:• Based on state-of-the-art ECMS within an Open Framework. The tool generates the energy management scheme through the user defining the topology, and providing component models, and the transport assignment.• Compatible with open or proprietary model libraries (e.g. HDH HILS). This is seen as important in providing an open methodology which can be made compatible with OEM or TIERs models. It also has potential benefits in simulation tools being developed by the EC, such as VECTO.• Automatically generating optimal control solution significantly improves development costs. Since the development of the energy management method is a significant proportion of the engineering time, this is expected to reduce the R&D costs, particularly for products consisting of a large number of variants, or product updates.• Enables potential for customer-based optimization service; such as providing in-field adaption of the energy management for a given customer towards the measured usable profiles.• Important for co-design process to fully explore hardware potential. Since the optimisation method may evaluate thousands of potential product variants; automating the process is mandatory, as well as ensuring that the optimisation result is not limited by a poor (highly sub-optimal) control method.The energy management approach is useful in all stages of the V-Cycle, including (but not limited to), the design study, implementation of the controller, HIL testing, and find assessment. During the project, these different benefits are being explored. The method has been published in the literature in peer-reviewed format, as a means to ensure that the key project results are widely communicated early. Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far) • Reduce the TCO to the same diesel vehicle TCO level, targeting over 10% system cost premium reduction compared to actual IVECO hybrid bus and VOLVO conventional truck with the same performances, same functionalities and operative cost, and also targeting up to 10% rechargeable energy storage (RES) lifetime/energy throughput improvement.o A methodology to optimize the sizing of the vehicle components, together with the energy management strategy has been defined, implemented and still being matured to be fit for purpose. This will reduce the vehicle TCO while reducing the ICE size and increasing the electric range.• Improve the hybrid powertrain efficiency up to 5% compared to actual IVECO hybrid bus and VOLVO conventional truck through optimized RES selection & sizing and by improving the energy and ICE management. o A hybrid RESS, consisting of high-energy batteries and high-power Li-capacitors, is being designed. A dedicated electrothermal model of Li-Capacitor cells is developed, while the aging model is under development.o The design of power electronics converters and waste heat recovery system is ongoing.• Reduce the fuel consumption by 40% compared to an equivalent conventional HD vehicle (bus & truck). o The definition and development of highly flexible and modular multimodal architecture applied to BUS demonstrator could speed up – by reducing product TCO and increasing fuel saving – the deployment of urban hybrid buses. The main potential social impact could be a reduction of (air) pollution and associated health effects.• Downsize the ICE by at least 50% compared to actual IVECO hybrid bus and VOLVO conventional truck.o Through optimization framework and demonstrator vehicles the downsize potential will be assessed and verified.• Improve the electric range from 10km to 30km by adding the PHEV capabilities and optimising the RES capacity.o A preliminary assessment of the RESS to be used by the vehicles to extend the electric range to 30 km has been proposed. The final pack design will come at a later stage.