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Self-OrganizatioN towards reduced cost and eNergy per bit for future Emerging radio Technologies

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - SONNET (Self-OrganizatioN towards reduced cost and eNergy per bit for future Emerging radio Technologies)

Reporting period: 2017-01-01 to 2018-12-31

SONNET will consider a complex context-aware heterogeneous network that is slowly becoming a 5G reality, and merge the notion of SO with radio connectivity protocols such as network sharing and CoMP to enhance the SON coverage within the mobile network in contrast to today´s network. We investigate the notion of SO (Self-organizing) CoMP and SO network sharing, as key technologies to reduce cost and energy per bit in legacy and future emerging mobile technologies.
Project Objectives:
Objective 1: Context-Aware Architectures for RAN (Radio Access Networks);
Objective 2: SO Network Sharing for Wireless Multi-Hop Heterogeneous Networks;
Objective 3: SO-Coordinated Multipoint Transmission for Cost and Energy per Bit Reduction;
Objective 4: Experimentation of SONNET Solutions Under Real Practical Conditions

Impact on Society:
In a mobile ecosystem that currently hosts a plethora of mobile operators, including virtual counterparts, competition is as strong as ever, raising the bar further on the quality of any potential mobile product entering the market. The introduction of new mobile services/products will come at a price: higher energy consumption and higher costs for maintaining the network. Mobile operators have to solve those two contentious issues in order to successfully continue offering competitive services and benefit the connected society at large. SONNET aims to address these issues by providing enhanced mobile services with lower costs and energy consumption through employing context-aware SON.
• Identified SONNET scenarios and use-cases, system architecture, requirements and performance indicators

The use-cases include:
D2D (Device-to-Device) communications for SO network shared environment
Self-Organized Cloudlets
Self-Organizing Virtualized H-CRAN

• Identified a Context-Aware Architecture for Self-Organization and context-based scheduling applications
The framework can exploit any context information related to UE and eNB to achieve the targeted use-cases of 5G (including network sharing). An information model of the context aware architecture is presented in Figure 1 (Context architecture and framework for proposed scheduling algorithm).

• Developed a context-based battery priority scheduling algorithm for limited battery powered devices utilizing high data rate demanding applications.
We investigated context-aware scheduling (CAS) algorithm based on energy efficiency as a design metric. Most of the conventional schedulers make decisions based on the throughput/QoS and instantaneous channel condition as part of a cross-layer scheduling approach. However, new factors that should be considered to enhance the system performance are the cost of energy per bit and the required energy.

• Multi-domain SDN MEC architecture for resource provisioning
MEC Resource provisioning
In SONNET, a deadlock aware algorithm for scheduling resources for IIoT devices onto a MEC platform which incorporates banker’s resource-request algorithm is proposed. Banker’s algorithm works by simulating and using specified resources to predetermine deadlock conditions for all pending activities and deciding if allocation should be allowed to continue.
• Design and development of an energy-aware routing algorithm for application offloading in SDN based Networks
We propose a novel Temporal Resource-aware Routing Algorithm for SDN (STR-RA). Performance of the algorithm is verified using a GNS3 based implementation with an Opendaylight controller. The simulation results were compared against legacy RIP (Routing Information Protocols) and OSPF(Open Shortest Path First) protocols, where a gain of up to 6 orders of magnitude was observed in E2E (End-to-End) delay reduction.

• SO-Network Sharing for heterogeneous networks
A mobile networking scenario was proposed that exploit the context-aware architecture paradigm, and SON (self-organizing network) module to gather context information about the user Signal-to-Noise and Interference in order to maximise the coverage-capacity of the network under a network sharing regime, as well to ensure energy efficient connectivity.

• Design of novel SO-CoMP transmission approaches for beyond 5G networks
SONNET implemented a hybrid approach based on centralized and distributed self-organized small cells that achieves low signalling overhead through direct small cell communication and copes with the global optimality by allowing partially centralized managements at the cloud core. The SON approach is shaped by two different optimization approaches that are investigated in the scope of WP3, that being machine learning (ML) and game theory
Context-aware Energy Efficient Packet Scheduling for 5G mobile networks:
SONNET goes beyond and investigates context-aware scheduling (CAS) algorithm which reduces the energy consumption by considering energy related parameters within the the context information

SO-Network Sharing:
In SONNET, we go beyond SOTA by merging SO with network sharing to provide an integrated and adaptive solution to optimise network coverage-capacity. The situation of employing network sharing is assumed through operators having a common service-level agreement.

IP Routing:
SONNET proposes the design and development of an energy-aware routing algorithm that exploits application offloading. In particular, it proposes a resource-aware routing algorithm for SDN, which monitors the resource utilization of network devices (nodes) and channels (links), using a push agent and fetches topology and flow table information from the controller. Using Link Queue Modelling and Stochastic Network Calculus, it guarantees a route that avoids busy nodes and uses unutilized ones. Results show the validity of the algorithm.
MEC and Resource Provisioning:
SONNET proposes a novel resource provisioning algorithm for deadlock avoidance in multi-access edge computing in the context of Industrial IoT (IIoT). A deadlock aware algorithm is proposed for scheduling resources based on the banker’s resource-request algorithm. Banker’s algorithm works by simulating and using specified resources to predetermine deadlock conditions for all pending activities and deciding if allocation should be allowed to continue. The proposed algorithm is only favorable if implemented using Software Defined Networking (SDN) to reduce the communication overhead that would be generated by the resource-request algorithm
SO-CoMP Transmission:
SONNET goes beyond SOTA by combining SON with CoMP resulting in what we refer to as a novel hybrid mode of self-organised CoMP that exploits the benefits of both the centralized and distributed interference management (IM) approaches.

Product Innovation:
We deliver a brand new product that we use as a vehicle for validating the key ideas in SONNET. We go beyond the current capabilities of each individual partner tool to provide an integrated experimental platform that collectively are able to model the future emerging 5G mobile networking paradigm as a virtual pool of networking resources. Moreover, this platform will be used to validate the innovations on SO-Network Sharing and SO-CoMP through the use of context-aware information.
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