We developed and validated novel VR-based paradigms that provide an entirely new window for experimentation on intrusive memories and their corresponding spatial representations. For example, our methodology allows the precise and flexible measurement of spatial memory of those elements of a scene that later form the content of distressing intrusions. Furthermore, our studies provide novel insights into spatial memory of emotional scene elements and about the strategies that people use to learn information about their spatial surroundings. Based on these insights, we developed a spatial memory training that will serve as a basis for our planned follow-up research. Since the mechanisms behind the development of debilitating traumatic intrusions are still poorly understood, this line of research contributes to a pressing issue by advancing our understanding of trauma-related psychopathology and putting psychobiological theories of PTSD under empirical scrutiny. Clinically, there are clear implications for the potential future diagnostic and prognostic use of cognitive markers in trauma victims. Indeed, we developed an allocentric spatial memory training that might be the basis for an entirely new treatment approach. The insights gained are particularly relevant for high-risk groups, like emergency service personnel or refugees from war zones, likely to develop PTSD.