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ENabling SafE Multi-Brand pLatooning for Europe

Deliverables

First Version Functional specification for white-label trucks (Operational & Tactical layers)

Report 1, first version; quantitative specification of the requirements imposed on the automation functions.

Dissemination and communication plan

Overall plan for the WP6, defining a consistent and efficient dissemination and communication plan with objectives, strategies, measures and project visual identity

Final version Functional specification for white-label trucks (Operational & Tactical layers)

Final version Update of D24 quantitative specification of the requirements imposed on the automation functions

Platooning protocol definition and Communication strategy

Specification of the secure vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication between trucks and secure vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication between trucks and smart infrastructure, V2X communication, in order to create an interoperable platooning system. The V2X communication is situated in the tactical layer.

Iterative Process Document and “Item Definition”

Definition of an iterative development process for functional safety activities including description of the item, its dependencies on, and interactions with, the environment and other items.

Preliminary Safety Case

Compilation of work products to provide evidence that the system is acceptably safe for the specific operating environments under consideration

Test results for obtaining the license exemptions

Results of the required tests for obtaining the different license exemptions

ENSEMBLE regulatory framework – state of the art

Extensive analysis of the current EU regulatory framework. Gaps and necessities will be identified in order to allow a EU-wide deployment of multi-brand platooning

Truck Platooning Projects, Programs and Cooperation groups

This report gives an overview of the running projects and programs and the active cooperation groups related to Truck Platooning

ENSEMBLE Recommendations and Roadmap

This deliverable will deliver recommendations for multibrand platooning based on the results of the various project work packages Moreover a roadmap towards reliable efficient and safe multibrand platooning will be proposed

V2 Platooning use-cases, scenario definition and Platooning Levels

This report describes the scenarios and usecases considered for platooning along the definition of the Platooning Levels Updated Report

First version Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment and Functional Safety Concept

Identification and categorisation of the hazards that malfunctions in the platooning function can trigger and derivation of functional safety requirements to mitigate the effects of these hazards. Focused on platooning level A

SOTIF Safety Concept

Identify SOTIF use cases analyse the associated risks and define SOTIF safety requirements and updated the Operation Design Domain

ENSEMBLE LoI

A Letter of Intent will be drafted by ERT to ask the formalisation of automotive industry and road authorities’ commitment to bring truck platooning technological solutions to the market in a short time horizon.

Analysis of market needs, business models and life-cycle environmental impacts of multi-brand platooning

An economic analysis of market needs taking into account the diversity of road freight transport operations and of the logistic needs of shippers also analysing possible business models of platooning and the conditions to maximise the added value and market potential in addition an environmental analysis of the lifecycle impacts of multibrand platooning

"Final version Iterative Process Document and ""Item Definition"":"

Definition of an iterative development process for functional safety activities including description of the item its dependencies on and interactions with the environment and other items Focused on platooning level B and C

Security framework of platooning

Security approach for the transmitted control messages will be proposed by increasing the reliability of the messages and reducing the communication delay.

Presentation of use cases

Presentation of the use cases defined in collaboration with all OEM’s of other road users encountering a platoon to be implemented in the simulator study.

Understanding convoys to forecast platooning practice: lessons from the present to the future.

Results of the evaluation of the interviews and video recordings that were taken during the real life tests from the drivers

V1 Platooning use-cases, scenario definition and Platooning Levels

This report describes the scenarios and use-cases considered for platooning along the definition of the Platooning Levels

Final version Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment and Functional Safety Concept

Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment and Functional Safety Concept Identification and categorisation of the hazards that malfunctions in the platooning function can trigger and derivation of functional safety requirements to mitigate the effects of these hazards Focusing more on Platooning level B and C

Requirements Review from EU projects

Requirements review from EU projects: report summarising the requirements used/defined for platooning in (former) EU projects, as far as available in the public domain

V1 ETPC Meeting Records

This deliverable consist in the minutes of the ETPC meetings, as input for the ENSEMBLE project. V2 will be delivered in M36

Future recommendations

Future recommendations for a suitable regulatory framework for platooning solutions Set of recommendations for a future legislation scenario according to the detected necessities

First version Demonstration and test plan (data acquisition and data management)

Demonstration and test plan including the definition of common methodology, data to be recorded and KPIs.

Final version Demonstration and test plan (data acquisition and data management)

Demonstration and test plan including the definition of common methodology data to be recorded and KPIs

ENSEMBLE MoU

A memorandum of understanding will be drafted by ERT and signed by a large amount of ETPC stakeholders to guarantee the fast adoption of MultiBrand Truck Platooning technologies once they are available on the market

V2 ETPC Meeting Records

This deliverable consist in the minutes of the ETPC meetings as input for the ENSEMBLE project

Traffic simulation

Modelling impact assessment and recommendations for realworld experiment description of the whole simulation process and its results

Validation results of Multi-brand platoons on Test Track

Test results of the validation activities at IDIADA test tracks

Proceedings of ENSEMBLE final event

This deliverable will describe and report the final event of the project It will include a written report describing the final event as well as all the relevant material pictures and short videos of the event presentations statistics feedbacks from the participants etc

Assessment of platoon axle loads on road infrastructure

Results of desk studies calculations lab tests and road monitoring of assessment of multibrand platoons on pavements bridges and other road assets

V2 Report on mutual recognition

V2 of Report on mutual recognition between involved MS and proposal for mutual recognition procedure in Europe Identification of all the test cases and specifications needed to obtain a driving exemption in each relevant Member State Proposal of a mutual recognition of exemption procedures between involved Member States to expedite the testing phase of multibrand platoons

V1 Report on mutual recognition

V1 of Report on mutual recognition between involved MS and proposal for mutual recognition procedure in Europe Identification of all the test cases and specifications needed to obtain a driving exemption in each relevant Member State Proposal of a mutual recognition of exemption procedures between involved Member States to expedite the testing phase of multibrand platoons 2nd Version will be available in M36

V1 Functional specification for intelligent infrastructure (Strategic/Services layers)

Description of possible services (infrastructure services, mapping solutions, location-based service and commercial multi-brand platooning coordination services) explaining the requirements on the Service and Strategic Interfaces. For the infrastructure service, specification of the cloud and V2I API to expose data sent by the road infrastructure for platoon information (centimetric position, speed, weight by axle, etc) . Initial version at M6 focused on the implementation during the Ensemble project.

Operational tests of multi-brand platoons on Open Roads

Test results of the driving trials on public roads

ENSEMBLE Brochure Final event

A final brochure format to be identified will be made available at M35 to summarise and to pave the road to further exploitation of projects finding and achievements

Detailed design of the unbranded Tactical Layer

Software implemented on TNOs HIL facility comprising the platoon management functionality mechanisms to check consistency of messages and functionality to guarantee safe platooning ie the tactical layer

ENSEMBLE digital presence

ENSEMBLE digital presence will be ensured by a dedicated website linking with the ETPC platform, and social medias presence in the most relevant platforms (LinkedIn, twitter, ResearchGate etch.)

ENSEMBLE Printed material

Printed material such as posters and flyers, to guarantee a relevant and effective dissemination at targeted events. All materials will conform to the project visual identity, to be defined in D6.1.

Publications

Truck platooning: expected benefits and implementation conditions on highways

Author(s): Bernard Jacob, Odile Arbeit de Chalendar
Published in: 2019
Publisher: HVTT Forum

Decision making for Connected and Automated Vehicles: A Max-Plus Approach

Author(s): Fusco, M, Semsar, E., Zegers, J. & Ploeg, J.
Published in: 2018
Publisher: Researchgate.net
DOI: 10.1109/vtcfall.2018.8690687

Regulatory framework state of the art for truck platooning

Author(s): Carlos Luján, Ignacio Lafuente, Marta Tobar, Estrella Martínez
Published in: 2019
Publisher: ITS world Conference Singapore

Platooning regulatory state of the art based on the H2020 Project: ENSEMBLE

Author(s): Luján, Tobar, Martínez, Lafuente
Published in: 2019
Publisher: JSAE

Hierarchical multi-injection strategy and platoon manoeuvres at network junctions

Author(s): Duret, A., Ladino, A., & Wang, M.
Published in: 2018
Publisher: HAL Open Science

Specifications for Multi-Brand Truck Platooning

Author(s): Lena Konstantinopoulou , Alessandro Coda , Franziska Schmidt
Published in: ICWIM 8, 8th International Conference on Weigh-In-Motion, 2019, Page(s) 8
Publisher: HAL Open Science

Truck Platoon Formation at Hubs: An Optimal Release Time Rule

Author(s): Alexander Johansson, Valerio Turri, Ehsan Nekouei, Karl Johansson, Jonas Mårtensson⁎
Published in: 21st IFAC World Congress, 2020, Page(s) 15312-15318
Publisher: Science Direct
DOI: 10.1016/j.ifacol.2020.12.2338

Platooning regulatory state of the art based on the H2020 Project: ENSEMBLE

Author(s): Ignacio Lafuentea, Carlos Lujána, Marta Tobara, Estrella Martíneza
Published in: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, 2020
Publisher: Springer Open

Calibration and impact of control strategies for splitting truck platoons at on-ramps

Author(s): LADINO, Andres; DURET, Aurelien; El Faouzi, Nour-Eddin
Published in: TRB 2020, Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, 1, 2020
Publisher: TRB

Functional-safety considerations for multi-brand truck platooning

Author(s): Simon Ellwanger, Prashanth Dhurjati, Markus Fischer et. Al
Published in: 2021
Publisher: ITS World Congress

Event-Triggered Distributed Model Predictive Control for Platoon Coordination at Hubs in a Transport System

Author(s): Ting Bai, Alexander Johansson, Karl Henrik Johansson, Jonas Mårtensson
Published in: 2021 60th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), 2021, ISBN 978-1-6654-3659-5
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
DOI: 10.1109/cdc45484.2021.9683080

Achieving an $\mathcal{L}_{2}$ string stable one vehicle look-ahead platoon with heterogeneity in time-delays

Author(s): Deesh Dileep, Mauro Fusco, Jan Verhaegh, Laurentiu Hetel, Jean-Pierre Richard, Wim Michiels
Published in: 2019 18th European Control Conference (ECC), 2019, Page(s) 1220-1226, ISBN 978-3-907144-00-8
Publisher: IEEE
DOI: 10.23919/ecc.2019.8796064

Game Theoretic Models for Profit-Sharing in Multi-fleet Platoons

Author(s): Alexander Johansson, Jonas Martensson
Published in: 2019 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC), 2019, Page(s) 3019-3024, ISBN 978-1-5386-7024-8
Publisher: IEEE
DOI: 10.1109/itsc.2019.8917349

Multi-Fleet Platoon Matching: A Game-Theoretic Approach

Author(s): Alexander Johansson, Ehsan Nekouei, Karl Henrik Johansson, Jonas Martensson
Published in: 2018 21st International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), 2018, Page(s) 2980-2985, ISBN 978-1-7281-0323-5
Publisher: IEEE
DOI: 10.1109/itsc.2018.8569379

A Dynamic Game Formulation for Cooperative Lane Change Strategies at Highway Merges

Author(s): Andres Ladino; Meng Wang
Published in: IFAC World Congress 2020, 1, 2020
Publisher: IFAC
DOI: 10.1016/j.ifacol.2020.12.2026

Specifications for multi-brand truck platooning

Author(s): Edoardo Mascalchi, Alessandro Coda, Dehlia Willemsen
Published in: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, 2020
Publisher: Springer Open

Real-Time Cross-Fleet Pareto-Improving Truck Platoon Coordination

Author(s): Alexander Johansson, Jonas Mårtensson, Xiaotong Sun, Yafeng Yin
Published in: 2021 IEEE International Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC), 2021, ISBN 978-1-7281-9142-3
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
DOI: 10.1109/itsc48978.2021.9565048

Cross-Platform Simulation Architecture with application to truck platooning impact assessment

Author(s): Andres Ladino, Lin Xiao, Kingsley Adjenugwhure, Nicolás Deschle, Gerdien Klunder
Published in: 2021 27th ITS World Congress, 2021
Publisher: 27th ITS World Congress
DOI: 10.48550/arxiv.2105.08987

Mutual recognition for platooning tests in open roads based on ENSEMBLE project

Author(s): Carlos Lujan, Cesar Elpuente, Oriol Flix, Marta Tobar
Published in: 2021
Publisher: ITS World Congress

Specifications for Multi-Brand Truck Platooning

Author(s): Alessandro Coda, Lina Konstantinopoulou, John Vissers
Published in: 2019
Publisher: ITS world Conference Singapore

First observations about response times and connectivity in a vehicles platooning experiment

Author(s): Lanaud, E., Ladino, A., & Buisson, C.
Published in: Transport Findings, 2021, ISSN 0316-8981
Publisher: HAL Open Science
DOI: 10.21949/1504485

Fatigue Life Predictions for a European Pavement Test Section Subjected to Individual and Platoon Truck Configurations

Author(s): Paulina Leiva-Padilla, Juliette Blanc, Aitor Salgado, Ferhat Hammoum, and Pierre Hornych
Published in: Transportation Research Record, 2022, ISSN 0361-1981
Publisher: US National Research Council
DOI: 10.1177/03611981211065430

Strategic Hub-Based Platoon Coordination Under Uncertain Travel Times

Author(s): Alexander Johansson, Ehsan Nekouei, Karl Henrik Johansson, Jonas Mårtensson
Published in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems ( Early Access ), 2021, Page(s) 1-11, ISSN 1524-9050
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
DOI: 10.1109/tits.2021.3077467

Optimization of Truck Platoon Wander Patterns Based on Thermo-Viscoelastic Simulations to Mitigate the Damage Effects on Road Structures

Author(s): Paul Marsac, Juliette Blanc, Olivier Chupin, Thomas Gabet, Ferhat Hammoum, Navneet Garg, Mai Lan Nguyen
Published in: Accelerated Pavement Testing to Transport Infrastructure Innovation - Proceedings of 6th APT Conference, 96, 2020, Page(s) 100-107, ISBN 978-3-030-55235-0
Publisher: Springer International Publishing
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-55236-7_11