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Galileo-EGNOS as an Asset for UTM Safety and Security

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - GAUSS (Galileo-EGNOS as an Asset for UTM Safety and Security)

Período documentado: 2018-03-01 hasta 2019-08-31

GAUSS (Galileo-EGNOS as an Asset for UTM Safety and Security) is a H2020 project that aims at developing a high performance positioning system for drones within the U-Space framework focusing on VLL (Very Low Level) UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) operations. GAUSS is based on multi-constellation GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) together with internal sensors data fusion and one of its key elements is the integration and exploitation of Galileo and EGNOS exceptional features in terms of accuracy, integrity and security, which will be key assets for the safety of current and future drone operations.
More concretely, high accuracy, authentication, integrity information and precise timing are some key GNSS enablers of future integrated drone operations under UTM (UAS Traffic Management) operations, which in Europe is being deployed under U-Space.

As a concise view, the main objectives of this project could be summarized as:
1. Precision of individual estimated positioning.
2. Safety for UAS and UTM operations.
3. Security and cyber-resilience in UAS and UTM operations.
4. Coordination among UAS within the same airspace.
5. Compatibility with Open and Specific EASA drone operational categories.
GAUSS project started officially on March 1st 2018. Five (out of the seven) work packages (WP) are in progress at this point of the project (month 18, M18), namely: WP1 (Management), WP3 (RPAS Precise Positioning & Orientation), WP4 (EGNSS signal Integrity & Security), WP5 (UTM Technologies), and WP7 (Communication, Exploitation and Dissemination); WP2 (UTM Operational Framework) had a duration of one year so it completed their work and WP6 (Integration, Trials and Validation) started in M19.

WP1: Project Management
In order to provide project management infrastructure and support several actions have been taken:
• The management infrastructure, procedures and quality standards have been set up and maintained.
• Financial supervision of partners’ costs has been undertaken to ensure project is in budget.
• Several high level meetings have been arranged, being the kick-off meeting, some consortium meetings and the midterm meeting the most relevant ones.
• Collaboration and synergies between partners have been fostered.
• Advisory board has been consolidated.

WP2: UTM Operational Framework
The GAUSS-UTM Operational Concept provided relevant conceptual developments for the future European UTM Concept of Operations focusing on GAUSS scope, and it also underpinned the technological developments which are to be carried out along the project. In this sense, the development basis was the recognition that the positioning service will be principally based on GNSS, due to the availability, continuity, integrity and accuracy of the navigation signals. A group of capabilities were envisaged for the technical realisation of the GAUSS-UTM system, which are aligned with the expected U-Space services, considering U1 and U2 level of deployment. In order to do so, this WP2 specified operationally and functionally the GAUSS-UTM system considering the available descriptions of the services.

WP3: RPAS Precise Positioning & Orientation
During this period, the analysis of the GAUSS RPAS dynamics, operational requisites and avionics systems was completed and the result is, among other elements, the definition of positional and navigational accuracy requisites for the intended use cases which were extended to cope with the scenarios designed in WP2. A set of final GNSS and on-board sensors was defined. The details of the proposed sensor fusion methods to be developed in GAUSS have been elaborated, including the overall algorithmic solution that fuses raw GNSS data with that of other internal sensors such as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Account for several software and hardware tools chosen have also been provided.

WP4: EGNSS Signal Integrity & Security
Addressing the problem of protection and security of infrastructure, in the current period, the following activities have been performed:
• Risk assessment focused on European GNSS (EGNSS) threats with particular reference to UAS within GAUSS operational framework.
• Definition of security scenarios in order to identify a set of functional requirements to generate a GNSS attack detector.
• Identification of EGNSS security features in drone applications, used as input for high-level design decisions for the GAUSS GNSS security application.
• Design of a set of detection algorithms (detectors) of spoofing/jamming attack of the GNSS signal.
• Identification and definition of GNSS cyber-attack countermeasures.
• Initial software development of anti-jamming, anti-spoofing measures.

WP5: UTM Technologies
The goal of this work package is the assessment and development of algorithms and functionalities that will allow a UA to operate under a UTM framework. More specifically, during this period an assessment and design of UTM infrastructure technologies was completed and the focus is now on developing safe operation functionalities for UTM, security issues related to UTM communication and integration with surveillance technologies (ADS-B).

WP7: Communication, Exploitation and Dissemination
The main goal with this WP is to raise awareness of the GAUSS system and ensure solid exploitation opportunities when the system is developed, at the end of the project. As of now several specific actions have been performed:
• Periodic publications on internet.
• Attendance to international events and workshops.
• Organization of two workshops.
• Publications on scientific and business journals.
• Contact establishment with other R&D projects.
The tasks that have been performed and also the ones that are still in progress are likely to and redefine some of the concepts that are currently being used. As of now, the main keys of the impact of GAUSS project in the state of art are:

1. The use of single motion differences and data fusion with other sensors in a tight graph-based optimization scheme. The relative position and absolute orientation accuracies are expected to be beyond actual stand-alone solutions. This might have economic impact with GNSS receiver manufacturers becoming interested in the GAUSS solution.

2. Holistic vision from operational and functional perspectives of a future UTM based on the current U-Space approach. The Concept of Operations (ConOps) for UTM is still an ongoing work and technical demonstrators are required to demonstrate the feasibility of these new airspace users. A group of capabilities are envisaged for the technical development of the GAUSS-UTM system, which have been aligned with the expected U-Space services.

3. Development of algorithms and functionalities for U-space in-flight services, in which Galileo/EGNOS is expected to provide better performance than other GNSS solutions; such as UTM simulators and tactical deconfliction services.