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Foods for diabetes and cognition

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - FODIAC (Foods for diabetes and cognition)

Reporting period: 2018-04-01 to 2020-03-31

FODIAC aims to tackle diabetes and the associated impairment of the cognitive function among the elderly. The integrative dietary solution developed in FODIAC involves three main steps (i) the extraction and stabilization of functional ingredients (mainly polyphenols); (ii) the formulation into texture-adapted foods; and, (iii) the implementation into dietary strategies that will be tested on elderlies.
In FODIAC Universities and Research Institutions with different expertise in the mentioned technologies work together Companies through the food value chain to foster the transference of knowledge reducing the time to the market.
The first step (corresponding to WP1, WP2) involves the use of the following emerging micro/nano-biotechnologies: Ohmic heating, Colloidal Gas Aphrons, Polyelectrolyte Complexation, Vibrational spray-drying, and Electro-Hydrodynamic Atomisation. The objective is to develop the most suitable solutions to extract bioactive molecules with antidiabetic and cognitive-enhancing activity for the elderly, and improve their stability and compatibility with food matrices. In this two WPs the role of the industrial partners is to provide raw materials as source of bioactive and orientate the research considering the requirements for industrial implementation such as eco-friendly, highly efficient, cost-effective, and easy to scale up.
The second step, corresponding with WP3, involves the development of improved food formulations, with textures adapted for the consumption by the elderly, incorporating antidiabetic and cognitive cognitive-enhancing molecules as well as the assessment of their industrial technical feasibility. The main challenges to achieve in this pillar is to keep the maximum of the bioactivity and sensory properties in an industrial formulation.
Finally, the third step (WP4) aims to assess in clinical trial involving elderlies, the performance of the developed antidiabetic, cognitive-enhancing foods and diets.
Thus, FODIAC aims to go from low TRL developing new emerging technologies towards high TRL implementing effective dietary solutions.
The main scientific milestone achieved by FODIAC in this period is to have a precise knowledge about the conditions of different technologies that allow to optimized the process of extraction of bioactives from raw materials. The results obtained demonstrated both the feasibility of the process proposed at lab scale and the interest of the companies to implement these process in their plants. For that purpose a further scale-up should be performed.

In particular:

Gas aphrons was the most suitable technology for recovery polyphenols from grape and apple pomace. Ohmic heating was suitable for extraction bioactives from raw materials and enzymatic treatments for solvent extraction gave good results for herbal extracts and also grape pomace.

The optimised conditions of the process were developed at lab scale according to the conditions suitable for eventual industrial implementation. Effective transference of these knowledges to the companies will depends on the capacity to scale up the process at pilot and industrial scale

Regarding the encapsulation of bioactives, the best technology to stabilize and keep the antioxidant activity was electrospinning. Vibrational spray drying also provided good results, but the scalability of this last technology is more complicated for large scale production. Bioinicia secured the suitability for industrial implementation of encapsulation of polyphenols in gliadin proteins of in lipid capsules.
FODIAC went beyond the state of the art by stablishing:
1) The proper ohmic heating conditions for extraction phenolic compounds and colorants from grape pomace;
2) The conditions to implement the enzymatic assisted extraction for recovery of bioactive phenolic compounds and dietary fiber from different fruit pomaces;
3) The CGA conditions and surfactant selection for polyphenols extraction from grape pomace and blackcurrant;
4) The selection of gliadin protein as food-grade polymeric materials for encapsulation of bioactives;
5) The recipe to synthetize core-shell structures using alginate/chitosan and whey proteins for polyphenols encapsulation by coacervation;
6) The electrospinning conditions to encapsulate polyphenols in gliadin proteins;
7) The nano spray-drier conditions for encapsulation of antocinins from grape pomace;
8) Some new fruit formulations for the inclusion of the encapsulated polyphenols into a fruit-based food matrix typically.