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Automated e-buses Lithium Ion Battery Early Warning and Fire Suppression System

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - LiionFire (Automated e-buses Lithium Ion Battery Early Warning and Fire Suppression System)

Reporting period: 2018-11-01 to 2019-07-31

LiIOn Fire

Transport systems contribute to about 23% of the EU's and 16% of global total carbon dioxide emission but at the same time it is the main source of air pollution in cities. Widely accepted solution to that challenge is the usage of electric and hybrid electric city bus technology. The largest number of these buses is currently, and will in the foreseen future, use Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries pose a significant fire and explosion risks, as well as an exceptionally catastrophic threat of injury, death and loss of property.
Thus, growth of the electric bus industry has accelerated the demand for e-bus fire suppression technologies. Current technologies do not fully meet customer needs as they do not offer automatic and integrated solution of early fire detection, system cooling and fire suppression. LiionFire, as an innovative product, seeks to address this gap.
Dafo Brand AB is a leading fire protection system provider with over 30 years of experience in manufacturing, supplying and training services for a plethora of industries. The goal of this project is to validate, demonstrate and commercialize a highly innovative fire protection system for e-buses. It offers an early fire warning system, spot cooling to prevent thermal runaway and finally localize and suppress fires.
Primary target users for LiionFire are city e-buses manufacturers, including our existing customers. In the product commercialization we will rely on the existing network of customers, OEMs and the existing worldwide distributors.

Objectives

Development of the Robust and predictive control system able to:
Early detect battery thermal runway indicators, guide vehicle power management system, able to activate and control cooling system and early detect/activate fire suppression.
Optimization of cooling, suppression system:
Agent distribution, routing and lining, agent tank, nozzles and body fixing elements
The integration and installation:
Of all components as a complete system in a test vehicle.
The Project has been analyzing several vehicla topologies with both Engine and battery design.
The cryogenic cooling system has been designed with focus on the 2 dominant battery pack Technologies.
Suitable pressure vessel has been selected and pipe/nozzle design has been optimized for effectiveness and performance.
The fire suppression system has been designed and adapted to be able to handle different agents to make it future-proof.
The detection system have been determined to be a primarily temperature sensors installed directly at the battery cells in order to be able to give early warning in case of rapid temperature rise. Thsi technoloy will be complemented with gas sensing, carbon monoxide, to give enhanced safety.
To interace with the existing battery managing system in order to be able to Exchange information between the vehicle and the cooling/extinguishing system a CAN-bus interface has been developed.
Next step is to perfom inegrated testing of the whole system as a unit and this is scheduled beginning 2019.
All preliminary tests shows that the system is capable of operating beyond the initial specifications and there is a high confidence that the full scale tests will verify this satisfactory. This makes the prospect of a successfull end product with high commercial potential highly realistic.
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