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Enhance driver behaviour and Public Acceptance of Connected and Autonomous vehicLes

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - PAsCAL (Enhance driver behaviour and Public Acceptance of Connected and Autonomous vehicLes)

Reporting period: 2019-06-01 to 2020-11-30

The PAsCAL project is how to improve the understanding and the implications of the Connected and Automated Vehicles on Society. It will create a Guide to Autonomy to capture this new knowledge.
Outcomes of the project will contribute on the training of future drivers and passengers and will help decision makers to move towards the new forms of individual and collective mobility made possible by the spread of driverless cars.

The vision of PAsCAL is to develop an interdisciplinary mix of innovative tools to:
-Explain what CAV are and how they work,
-Remove issues that hinder people’s acceptance of CAV,
-Assess the impact of connected transport on society,
-Educate future drivers and non-drivers on safe, responsible and informed spread of CAV
-Design effective recommendations and guidelines on guiding people to autonomy.

This vision is reflected in the 7 project objectives.

1) to develop a europe-wide multi-dimensional map of public acceptance for higher levels of connectivity and automation in transport for different user groups including current non-drivers
2) to optimise and validate connected and automated transport solutions for current non drivers
3) to analyse driver’s behaviour in different kind of CAV scenarios
4) to identify the impact factors and their dependencies which reflect identified issues and lessons learned
5) to investigate new driver training needs and also certification requirements for new technologies or levels of automation
6) to assess attitudes towards shared modes of transport and the inclusion of CAV as part of some fleets
7) to evaluate the short term and long term impacts of the PAsCAL solutions by developing guidelines and recommendations on common issues , approaches and lessons learned across several transport modes and targeting different private and public stakeholders.
To fulfill these objectives, PASCAL has a series of activities and outcomes.

First, we have a series of specific surveys that will allow us to get the perception and the expectation of citizens regarding the new autonomous and connected technologies. They will try to better understand the fears of the citizens and help us to prepare the solutions that will be provided by the project.

We have also a series of simulators covering a broad range of criteria and dedicated to different Research Questions . The will provide us a better understanding of the reasons for the distrust towards CAV’s expressed by many citizens. They will describe reactions and behaviors in situations that are still completely new and yet to be determined. They will also be useful for some conclusions to be drawn in term of vehicle design, human machine interface layouts, and also some more holistic organization of the transport system.

We will also have a series of training requirements, training modules and certification requirements that can help to best train CAV’users and current drivers .

Then, we will implement 5 transport pilots that will be conducted in different European countries. These pilot projects will focus respectively on high-capacity autonomous buses, user training to driving schools and driving academies, different types of connected shared vehicles , vehicles for emergency services, and last but not least applications that allows people with disabilities to travel thanks to new autonomous driving technologies within a transport network.

All the new knowledge collected thanks to the different tools presented before will be analysed in term of impacts and incorporated in the guide to autonomy, one of the main outcome of the project, which will be made available to all relevant stakeholders.

We are also working on outreach activities in order to, in one hand disseminate the Project outcomes and in the other hand to ensure that they will be successfully exploited and adopted by the stakeholders during and after the end of the project.
"The impact areas described in the DoW are indicated as well as the impacts obtained.

IM01: Support the integration of higher levels of connectivity and automation in transport.
Working toward the delivery of a Guide2Autonomy for the integration of higher levels of CAV, user acceptance and assuring public interests, PAsCAL delivered the basis of the G2A toolbox through a large literature inventory and analysis of public acceptance of CAV, qualitative research through a set of expert interviews and a large-scale EU wide survey. The data analysis led to the foundation of the simulators, training tools and pilot indicator and evaluation frameworks. It also defined the structure of the Guide2Autonomy.

IM02 – Contribute to improved levels of safety and security in all modes of transport, in line with the Transport White Paper 2011
Next to the adequate functioning of any CAV development, at the heart of the PAsCAL indicator framework is set the need for assured and if possible improved safety and security levels in all modes as a result of higher levels of connected and automated transport.

The set evaluation and indicator frameworks of the simulations, development of training and pilot testing are in this regard building upon the adopted ‘zero-vision’ approach. Therewith, PAsCAL will be able to provide feedback on the safety criteria including vulnerable users and work towards a comprehensive strategy for people's safety inside and outside, training and education of all road users to improve awareness of surrounding environments.

IM03 - Contribute to the possible reduction of cost for industry and public authorities through an improved understanding of requirements and needs of different types of ""drivers""/users in the context of connectivity and automation in all modes of transport.
The PAsCAL project provided an understanding of the requirements in terms of “cost acceptance” and “willingness to pay” indicators. Included in the analysis of the PAsCAL simulation, training tools and pilots will lead to recommendations for the CAV solutions development and services provision.

IM04 - Contribute to a better user acceptance of innovative, cooperative, connected and highly automated transport systems.
PAsCAL created a robust scientific methodology to understand present and future issues in CAV acceptance and applied it to several thousands of people in 9 countries. On the basis of this work the PAsCAL consortium developed the scenarios and simulated environments where it will be possible to test the effectiveness of different measures to mitigate those issues.

IM05 - Enhance driver awareness and behaviour in a range of complex / urban operating environments.
Dissemination activities contributed to reach the project expected impacts by supporting and increasing academic and industry awareness on CAV, user acceptance and public interest. In addition, the exploitation tasks will allow to bring forward all PAsCAL exploitable results that have high chances to reach the market and enable those results to reach higher technology readiness levels at the end of the project and therewith enhance CAV related driver awareness and behaviour.

PAsCAL already contribute to the acceleration of the perspective of inclusive mobility by involving over 232 disabled travellers in the PAsCAL assessment of the users’ needs that form the basis of the recommendations, tools and guidelines to be included in the Guide2 Autonomy for how to design CAVs and CAV user experience in a way that better answers to their specific needs."
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