PPILOW partners organized the participatory approach by setting-up nine NPG dedicated to pig or poultry in six countries. They contributed to identify barriers to welfare and levers for improvement, and co-created with the PPILOW partners shared tools and strategies for improving animal welfare to be tested experimentally and on-field. A first inventory of barriers to welfare and levers for improvement was built-up, and partners collected the opinions from 26 focus groups of farmers, citizens, processors of livestock products, retailers (UK, FI, FR, BE, IT, RO), and EU policy makers on welfare issues and potential solutions in these systems. Standardized mobile apps for farmers to self-assess and benchmark on-farm the welfare status of the animals were co-developed (PIGLOW for pigs) or refined (EBENE for poultry) with NPG. Both apps are now freely available in App stores in English, Dutch and French. They are currently being evaluated in longitudinal on-farm studies in pig farms. Meanwhile, the creation of a global framework based on the One Welfare approach centered on both human and animal welfare is almost complete. This includes a multi-criteria (economic, social and environmental) assessment of welfare improving strategies, for which one framework per production type is discussed with NPG. Alternatives to beak trimming using innovative incubation and insect larvae enrichment processes in laying hens, and to piglet castration, are under study. First results indicate that birds with enrichment showed more foraging behaviour and were less fearful towards humans (NL, BE). Two trials are prepared in research facilities and on-farm, to provide information regarding the role of the genotype, age and weight at slaughter and the diet and housing conditions on the occurrence of boar taint in slaughter pigs (FR). For finding alternatives to the elimination of day-old layer male chicks, three experimental trials are comparing dual-purpose genotypes (DK, DE, FR). The one completed on both males and females in DK showed a high variability of technical performance between genotypes, due to different strategy for crosses, exhibiting less or high layer or meat potentials. Concerning in ovo sexing, refinements on methodologies for electrophysical sensing have been assessed. Finally, innovations for favouring positive behaviours, health and robustness by increasing adaptation to organic and outdoor systems for laying hens, slow-growing broilers and pigs are explored. Studies with different broiler genotypes (FR, IT) have allowed a better understanding of the determinants of exploratory behavior. Partners working with layers (DK) and pigs (RO) are developing strategies to limit intestinal parasitic and bacterial infections through different feed supplements. In infected layers, the effect of a feed based on fermented products has been tested. Microbiological, immunological and parasitic profiles were obtained in pigs, and in vitro methods for the screening of plant extracts have been established. Joint protocols are developed and implemented in FR and DK to improve the sow welfare and piglet survival through selective breeding (FR) and innovation within farrowing house design for outdoor rearing of sows and piglets (DK). PPILOW developed online tools, released magazine articles and interviews for communicating on its activities and results, and co-organized the joint online conference “Improving Sustainability and Welfare in Organic Poultry and Pig production” with 3 other EU projects.