Periodic Reporting for period 2 - ROADMAP (Rethinking Of Antimicrobial Decision-systems in the Management of Animal Production) Reporting period: 2020-12-01 to 2022-05-31 Summary of the context and overall objectives of the project ROADMAP fosters transitions towards prudent antimicrobial use (AMU) in animal production in a large variety of contexts, by favouring a rethinking of antimicrobial decision-systems all along the food supply chain. Even if it is possible to learn from successful experiences, there is no “one-size-fits-all” solution to reduce AMU but various strategies working according to local conditions, defined by social, economic, technical and institutional variables.ROADMAP develops innovative conceptual approaches within a transdisciplinary and multi-actor perspective to engage with animal health professionals, stakeholders and policy-makers. It adapts, combines and produces tailored strategies to reduce AMU in diverse production systems in Europe and low- and middle-income countries (pig, poultry, dairy and cattle). Main objectives of ROADMAP are 1) to understand why and how AMU varies according to local contexts, by studying knowledge, practice and behaviours of farmers, veterinarians and upstream and downstream industries of the food supply chain; 2) to develop innovative socioeconomic and technical instruments to foster prudent AMU adapted to various production systems, by co-designing integrative strategies with animal health professionals and stakeholders; 3) to evaluate ROADMAP solutions and ensure their impact. Innovative communication and dissemination tools are implemented to reach a large community of end-users.ROADMAP will identify levers and incentives to encourage AMU change, by providing 1) scenarios and recommendations for efficient transitions towards prudent AMU and 2) solutions socially acceptable but also technically and economically feasible. ROADMAP will therefore contribute to the fight against antimicrobial resistance by allowing cross-learning from diverse successful experiences, encouraging a harmonization of AMU reduction trends across Europe and thus favouring a global decrease of AMU in animal production. Work performed from the beginning of the project to the end of the period covered by the report and main results achieved so far ROADMAP has started in June 2019 and has already achieved an important number of intermediary objectives. All the data have been collected and we are now in the process of data analysis. Some preliminary results have already been communicated. Regarding the economic analysis, data analysis is under way and shall be complete in 2022. Regarding the sociological analysis, data analysis (both qualitative and quantitative) is under way and shall be complete in 2022. There is a few months delay due to CoVid restrictions, therefore the cross-analysis of economic and sociological data might only be done in 2023.Participative approaches are being implemented through our Living Labs and our impact assessment methods. The Living Labs have started in all implicated countries, with a few months of delay due to CoVid restrictions.Regarding the evaluation of our strategies to promote prudent use of AMU, our protocol is strongly related to our Living Labs activities, as we believe that participative methods are also essential to an evaluation that is shared by all stakeholders.Dissemination and communication activities have reached an important step, although they had to be adapted to the Covid restrictions. ROADMAP’s website and social networks have been established since the first year of the project and are working very well. We are relying on these tools even more according to the circumstances. The SAB is also consulted on various occasions. A series of materials and communication tools have been produced, such as leaflets and videos to present the project to various stakeholders. Several events have been organised, or co-organised with other relevant projects.Project management and supervision is going well, both from a scientific and a financial/administrative point. Extra work has been carried out to manage the CoVid crisis and adapt the project to travel restrictions. Regular meetings with ExCom are organized to follow up the implementation of the project, five General Assemblies have been organised (including an additional one in February 2020). Progress beyond the state of the art and expected potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project so far) ROADMAP’s ambitious objectives have not changed. Applying innovative approaches to the topic of AMR will bring substantial results and impact, in particular through the systemic and dynamic framework (food- and drug- chain approach, and transition studies) that we have chosen to bring new light on the AMR issue.First, we aim to show how the structure of food and drug markets is a decisive determinant of antibiotic use (i.e. stakeholders behaviours), as well as the political and institutional factors. Our preliminary results in some case-studies show interesting outcomes demonstrating how much the actors of the production and distribution channels of veterinary drugs, as well as the regulatory bodies, have a strong impact on how antibiotics are prescribed, sold and used. It will potentially prove that AMR policy should focus more on these levels of the drug chain than just the final users. We also have preliminary results in some case-studies showing the important role of large producers’ organisations and more broadly of the agri-food industry in the implementation of antibiotic stewardship programmes. All of this goes beyond the existing literature and will hopefully be confirmed (and then published) in the next stages of the project, with complementary data and, more importantly, with transversal analysis.Second, the participative approach that we chose in this project also reaches great expectations. The Living Labs methodology should bring very innovative outcomes in how engaging with stakeholders and animal health professionals, in a way which is not just a top-down sort of communication which has proved its limits so far. It is nevertheless a bit too early so far to anticipate our results in this area since our Living Labs have had some months of delay due to the CoVid restrictions.All in all, we believe in the strong potential of the project, both for scientific and socioeconomic impact since our results would be translated into recommendations for stakeholders and potential tools for their implementation.