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Development of a Decision Support System for Improved Resilience & Sustainable Reconstruction of historic areas to cope with Climate Change & Extreme Events based on Novel Sensors and Modelling Tools

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - HYPERION (Development of a Decision Support System for Improved Resilience & Sustainable Reconstruction of historic areas to cope with Climate Change & Extreme Events based on Novel Sensors and Modelling Tools)

Reporting period: 2020-12-01 to 2022-05-31

HYPERION aims to introduce a research framework for downscaling the created climate and atmospheric composition as well as associated risk maps down to the 1x1 km (historic area) scale, and specific damage functions for Cultural Heritage (CH) materials. Applying atmospheric modelling for specific Climate Change (CC) scenarios at such refined spatial and time scales allows for an accurate quantitative and qualitative impact assessment of the estimated micro-climatic and atmospheric stressors. HYPERION will perform combined hygrothermal and structural/ geotechnical analysis of the CH sites and damage assessment under normal and changed conditions, based on the climatic zone, the micro-climate conditions, the petrographic and textural features of building materials, historic data for the structures, the effect of previous restoration processes and the environmental/physical characteristics of the surrounding environment. The data coming from the integrated monitoring system will be coupled with simulated data (under our holistic resilience assessment platform-HRAP) and will be further analysed through our data management system, while supporting communities’ participation and public awareness. The data from the monitoring system will feed the DSS so as to provide proper adaptation and mitigation strategies, and support sustainable reconstruction plans for the CH damages. The produced vulnerability map will be used by the local authorities to assess the threats of CC (and other natural hazards), visualize the built heritage and cultural landscape under future climate scenarios, model the effects of different adaptation strategies, and ultimately prioritize any rehabilitation actions to best allocate funds in both pre- and post-event environments. The project outcomes will be demonstrated to four European historic areas in Norway, Spain, Italy and Greece (representing different climatic zones).
During the 1st period of the project (M1 - M18) the consortium partners made significant progress towards meeting the project objectives. Namely, they achieved a reliable quantification of climatic, hydrological and atmospheric stressors, by gathering requirements and all available geographic and other data and services (e.g. hydrological, atmospheric, meteorological). This information was used in the design and initial development of a novel system for the provision of prevailing information on the dominant atmospheric stressors at individual building level. In parallel, partners designed and initiated development of advanced and reliable multi-hazard models. The work is based on existing research capacity in a broad spectrum of modelling approaches to natural and man-made hazards. The models are combined with an analysis of building materials and deterioration processes, accomplished through the selection, recovery and study of the rock types characteristic of the demonstration sites, as well as the weathering laboratory tests. Moreover, the methodology for the implementation of a Hygro-Thermal (HT) simulation tool has been developed, together with a platform for detailed and simplified Structural and Geotechnical (SG) modelling. The method has been applied to two CH buildings in the pilot area of Tønsberg, while surveys for the platform have been conducted in Tønsberg and Granada. The design of a Remote Sensing-based multiscale monitoring system (RS-MMS) is also underway, providing detection of damage/degradation and emerging hazards as well as rapid post-hazard event damage assessment. All the aforementioned tools, models and methods (climatic, SG and HT) are combined into a single platform (HRAP) which will support decisions at strategic, tactical and operational level. The design efforts for HRAP have started with the analysis of required functionality and technology needs.
1. HYPERION is establishing a methodology for achieving sustainable reconstruction & recovery interventions of historic areas where damage has occurred, thus rendering them more socially, economically & environmentally resilient, while proactively enhancing our knowledge to better cope with future disasters. Towards this goal, the consortium has initiated the development of HRAP, which will make projections based on environmental and multi-hazards modelling, material deterioration patterns, but also integrate scenarios provided by the end users, in order to train stakeholders.
2. We develop, deploy and validate tools, information models, strategies and plans for enhancing the resilience of historic areas to cope with disaster events, vulnerability assessment and integrated reconstruction. In this context, we gathered downscaled climatic maps of four pilot areas, we initiated the development of multi-hazard simulation tools for certain hazard scenarios, and have the first results from the HT and SG analysis. We used enhanced CV and ML algorithms for faster and more efficient identification of damages to diverse structures. Novel remote sensing methodologies for land deformation, land use changes and material deterioration have been developed for supporting models, strategies and plans for the resilience of historic areas.
3. HYPERION has collaborated with end users in order to produce novel smart tag designs which will test and pilot novel cost-effective solutions to enhance the resilience of buildings and whole historic areas to natural hazards, including CC related events, fully respecting the historic value of the places.
4. In order to provide science-/evidence-based guidelines & models to local authorities for sustainable reconstruction, we have drafted site-specific sensor deployment guidelines, we have initiated the development of Business Continuity (BC) models using data from Rhodes and Tosnberg, and we promote the connection of the HYPERION platform with the PLUGGY community engagement tool.
5. HYPERION improves and further develops models to predict direct and indirect impacts of climate, global and environmental change and related risks on historic areas. The system for the provision of detailed prevailing information on the dominant atmospheric stressors at individual building level was primarily designed and is currently under development.
6. We have reviewed, mapped and characterized existing experiences and good practices in Europe and globally, through evidence and common metrics to evaluate and establish their replicability conditions.
7. A flood extent mapping method has been developed and results were compared with products of the Copernicus EMS. Results presented high accuracy for natural environments. The new method, if adopted by Copernicus services, could contribute to the improvement of the relevant EMS products.
8. During the first reporting period we have closely collaborated with relevant Horizon 2020 projects, SHELTER and ARCH, and forming an EU Task force for Climate Neutral and Resilient Historic Urban Districts.

The aforementioned achievements during the first report period, render us confident that by the end of the project all the aforementioned impacts described in the DoA will be fully realized.