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Creating the next generation of 3D simulation means for icing

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - ICE GENESIS (Creating the next generation of 3D simulation means for icing)

Reporting period: 2020-07-01 to 2021-12-31

Current design methodologies used to characterise ice accretion and its effects on air vehicle components and power plant systems are mainly based on empirical methods, comparative analysis, 2D simulation tools and past experience gained on in-service products.
Due to the associated uncertainties, cautious design margins are used, leading to conservative and non-optimised solutions. As future air vehicle and propulsive system architectures introduce radical design changes, it will no longer be possible to rely on existing design methodologies, making future development extremely difficult to accomplish efficiently and within short development cycles demanded by customers and desired by industry.
These difficulties are increased by the recent changes in certification regulations, in particular for Supercooled Large Droplets (SLD), which require manufacturers to certify their products against more stringent requirements. Snow also remains a challenge, especially for turbine engines and APUs.
ICE GENESIS will provide the European aeronautical industry with validated new generation 3D icing engineering tools (numerical simulation tools and upgraded test capabilities), addressing App C, O and snow conditions, for safe, efficient, right first time, and cost effective design and certification of future regional, business and large aircraft, rotorcraft and engines. ICE GENESIS will permit weather hazards to be more precisely evaluated and properly mitigated thanks to adapted design or optimised protection through either active or passive means. Furthermore, ICE GENESIS will pave the way for 3D digital tools to be used in the future as acceptable means of compliance by the regulation authorities. Overall, ICE GENESIS will contribute to flight safety, reduced certification costs and increased operability.
So far, ICE GENESIS achieved the following:
• All necessary tools & procedures are in place (WP1 - Project management). The Plan for Exploitation & Dissemination of Results was released. The public website & communication kit were delivered/updated (WP2 - Dissemination & exploitation).
• Requirements, specifications and test plans for both liquid icing and snow conditions tests were defined (WP3 - Consolidation of specifications & test plans. Test follow up).
• Selection and calibration of instrumentation for Particle Size Distribution (PSD) and Liquid Water Content (LWC) was achieved for each W/T facility. Regarding droplet temperature instrumentation, the Global Rainbow Technique (GRT) was successfully tested in a small W/T & validated with numerical studies. As for cloud homogeneity, the new Generalized Scattering Imaging (GSI) technique was successfully tested in lab conditions. A 3D Scanning system & associated post-processing tool were developed to document the ice-accretion on tests objects after icing wind tunnel tests runs (WP4 - Instrumentation for liquid icing conditions).
• Instrumentation was selected for the snow F/T campaigns, and ground measurements were performed in the Alps. Snow microphysical properties characterization was partially achieved due to successful snow measurements F/T campaigns (ATR42 and YAK42) and ground measurement. A common language for snow properties has been established with WP7 and WP10 partners (WP5 - Instrumentation for snow & microphysical properties).
• Improvement of test capabilities in progress, common calibration methodology released. TRL5 (calibration) was achieved for RTA IWT FZDZ capability. TRL3 (IWT improvement) was achieved for CIRA IWT FZDZ capability. A common set of instrument and data analysis methods was identified with WP4 partners (WP6 - SLD test capability).
• Improvement of test capabilities and calibration tests with comparison to flight test results are in progress: TRL3.1 (snow generation system integration) was partially achieved for RTA snow generation capability, and an up scaled prototype was developed and tested for TRL3.2 in February 2022. NRC successfully integrated the new snow generation system and completed tests. A common calibration methodology for snow tests has been defined (WP7 - Snow test capability).
• The design of test articles for snow and liquid condition IWT tests was finalised, a 3D ice scanning process was defined with WP4. The tests database was created and filled with legacy data. The design of test articles for liquid condition and snow IWT tests was finalised. Manufacturing is achieved for most articles. LDO rescue hoist test campaign for Appendix C at TSAGI AHT-SD was achieved (WP8 - Wind tunnel tests for liquid icing and snow conditions).
• For liquid conditions, most experiments were completed (drop impact, roughness). Modelling and assessment of improved models is in progress. Several 3D ice accretion methodologies were implemented (WP9 - Numerical capability development for liquid icing conditions).
• For snow, most experiments were completed. Model for trajectory and melting was developed and validated. Model development for impact and accretion started. Model integration into 3D tools started (WP10 - Numerical capability development for snow).
The forecasted impact is as follows:
Ensuring safety for all icing conditions: ICE GENESIS focuses on contributing to ensuring safety for all icing conditions by delivering a set of validated capabilities covering all types of icing conditions and air vehicles. Consequently, it will permit weather hazards to be more precisely evaluated and properly mitigated by improving the understanding and modelling of icing conditions and providing numerical tools for design and certification.
Reducing costs of certification: Program development and certification costs could be reduced by 50 percent by extensive use of comprehensive simulation tools. This gain will be notably obtained through a reduced use of other means of compliance, i.e. less wind tunnel tests and flight tests.
Reducing costs of maintenance: In-service incidents lead to lower operability and expensive maintenance costs. The numerical simulations made possible by ICE GENESIS outcomes would therefore lead to savings millions of Euros in maintenance costs by drastically reducing the number of in-service events for future engines, thus increasing air vehicle operability and reducing disruption to passenger air travel.
Reducing power consumption and environmental footprint: Ice protection systems are very demanding in terms of power off take. The use of more accurate 3D numerical tools will allow optimisation of the sizing and integration of ice protection systems and reduce power consumption by implementing more disruptive de-icing electro-thermal ice protection system. By permitting optimised design with reduced conservatism of key engine components, ICE GENESIS will allow to place on the market more efficient new engines in terms of reduced fuel burnt.
Maintaining European competitiveness: ICE GENESIS will contribute in many ways to strengthen European competitiveness:
• Further exploration of design and de-risking against late redesign,
• Maintain competitiveness for European air vehicle manufacturers and European engine manufacturers,
• Reduce power consumption as well as the costs of maintenance and certification,
• Increase testing capabilities within Europe,
• Increase European scientific excellence and strengthen international research collaboration with Russia, Canada and Japan,
• Strengthen European leadership on icing tools.
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