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Creating the next generation of 3D simulation means for icing

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - ICE GENESIS (Creating the next generation of 3D simulation means for icing)

Reporting period: 2019-01-01 to 2020-06-30

Current design methodologies used to characterise ice accretion and its effects on air vehicle components and power plant systems are mainly based on empirical methods, comparative analysis, 2D simulation tools and past experience gained on in-service products.
Due to the associated uncertainties, cautious design margins are used, leading to conservative and non-optimised solutions. As future air vehicle and propulsive system architectures introduce radical design changes, it will no longer be possible to rely on the existing design methodologies, making future development extremely difficult to accomplish efficiently and within short development cycles that are demanded by customers and desired by industry.
These difficulties are increased by the recent changes in certification regulations, in particular for Supercooled Large Droplets (SLD), which require manufacturers to certify their products against more stringent requirements. Snow also remains a challenge, especially for turbine engines and APUs.
ICE GENESIS will provide the European aeronautical industry with a validated new generation of 3D icing engineering tools (numerical simulation tools and upgraded test capabilities), addressing App C, O and snow conditions, for safe, efficient, right first time, and cost effective design and certification of future regional, business and large aircraft, rotorcraft and engines. ICE GENESIS will permit weather hazards to be more precisely evaluated and properly mitigated thanks to adapted design or optimised protection through either active or passive means. Furthermore, ICE GENESIS will pave the way for 3D digital tools to be used in the future as acceptable means of compliance by the regulation authorities. Overall, ICE GENESIS will contribute to flight safety, reduced certification costs and increased operability.
ICE GENESIS achieved the following during its first period:
• All necessary tools and procedures have been put in place (WP1 - Project management). The Plan for Exploitation and Dissemination of the Results was released, and the public website and an initial communication kit were delivered (WP2 - Dissemination & exploitation).
• The requirements for both liquid icing and snow conditions tests were defined, as well as specifications and test plans for liquid icing conditions (WP3 - Consolidation of specifications & test plans. Test follow up.).
• The most appropriate instrumentation was selected for IWT calibration (WP4 - Instrumentation for liquid icing conditions, WP5 - Instrumentation for snow & microphysical properties).
• Instrumentation was selected for the snow F/T campaigns, and ground measurements were performed in the Alps. A first snow characterisation was completed. (WP5 - Instrumentation for snow & microphysical properties)
• For liquid conditions, development and improvement activities of IWTs was launched and a common calibration methodology was released. First feeder TRL (TRL3) held in July 2020 and conclusive (WP6 - SLD test capability).
• For snow conditions, a calibration methodology for test facilities was released and first test campaigns were performed. First feeder TRL (TRL2) held in December 2019 and conclusive (WP7 - Snow test capability).
• The design of test articles for snow and liquid condition IWT tests was finalised, a 3D ice scanning process was defined, and the tests database structure was created (WP8 - Wind tunnel tests for liquid icing and snow conditions).
• Experimental campaigns and IWT construction started after the release of the experimental test matrix (WP9 - Numerical capability development for liquid icing conditions).
• The test plan for snow experimental investigations was released, and first trials were performed. Model development started based on existing data (WP10 - Numerical capability development for snow).
The forecasted impact of the ICE GENESIS project is as follows:
Ensuring safety for all icing conditions
The ICE GENESIS project focuses on contributing to ensuring safety for all icing conditions by delivering a set of validated capabilities covering all types of icing conditions and air vehicles. Consequently, ICE GENESIS will permit weather hazards to be more precisely evaluated and properly mitigated by improving the understanding and modelling of icing conditions and providing numerical tools for the design and certification.
Reducing costs of certification
Program development and certification costs could be reduced by 50 percent by extensive use of comprehensive simulation tools. This gain will be notably obtained through a reduced use of other means of compliance, i.e. less wind tunnel tests and flight tests.
Reducing costs of maintenance
In-service incidents lead to lower operability and expensive maintenance costs. The numerical simulations made possible by the ICE GENESIS outcomes would therefore lead to savings of millions of Euros in maintenance costs by drastically reducing the number of in-service events for future engines, thus increasing air vehicle operability and reducing disruption to passenger air travel.
Reducing power consumption and environmental footprint
Ice protection systems are very demanding in terms of power off take. The use of more accurate 3D numerical tools will allow optimisation of the sizing and integration of ice protection systems and reduce power consumption by implementing more disruptive de-icing electro-thermal ice protection system. By permitting optimised design with reduced conservatism of key engine components, ICE GENESIS will also permit to place on the market more efficient new engines in terms of reduced fuel burnt.
Maintaining European competitiveness
ICE GENESIS will also contribute in many ways to strengthen European competitiveness as it aims to:
• Further exploration of design and de-risking against late redesign,
• Maintain competitiveness for European air vehicle manufacturers and European engine manufacturers,
• Reduce power consumption as well as the costs of maintenance and certification,
• Increase testing capabilities within Europe,
• Increase European scientific excellence and strengthen international research collaboration with Russia, Canada and Japan,
• Strengthen European leadership on icing tools.