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Open ScienCe Aeronautic & Air Transport Research

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - OSCAR (Open ScienCe Aeronautic & Air Transport Research)

Reporting period: 2020-07-01 to 2021-06-30

Project objectives

The main goal of OSCAR was initiating and delivering an Open Science (OS) concept to European aeronautics research:
• The OS concept is widely known in European aviation sector.
• The message of an achieved balance between OS and IPR protection has been convincingly spread by means of a Code of Conduct.
• Project consortia are well guided to efficiently apply the OS Code of Conduct.
• A paradigm shift towards implementation of OS in European aviation research has been initiated.

In order to realize the main goal and the related sub-goals OSCAR achieved the following Objectives and measurable results:
An assessment of the development of OS in European AAT projects.
A guidance for participants in AAT projects towards OS
A Code of Conduct iteratively matured and validated in pilot cases.
Complementary measures are foreseen to maximise impact.
WP1 – Project Management

WP2 - Survey & Analysis on the complex landscape in AAT research (landscape)
T2.1 Identification of stakeholders in the landscape regarding OS
Step 1: Identification of European AAT stakeholders
Step 2: Network connections
Step 3: Data mining of European research project data
Step 4: Merging and further analysis of achieved results
Step 5: Identification of communication channels

T2.2 Mapping the landscape.
T2.2 Perception of OS within the landscape by:
OSCAR Mini Survey
OSCAR Big Survey
OSCAR Structured Interviews
The results are ambiguous.

T2.3 Analysis of CAMs
CAMs have been analysed with regard to their suitability for implementing OS principles.
Compatibility with current CAMs?
Relevance in the CAMs?
Already a topic in the CAMs?
Digitalisation (essential for the OS) does not seem to be relevant in investigated CAMs.

T3.1: The Forum
From online to physical to virtuality again (corona pandemic)
In the beginning it was planned to use at least one major large public event – ILA2020 – to widen the discussion and to disseminate interim results. As the virtual Forum hardly provided usable results, the process was redesigned to a number of public events. The corona pandemic undermines this second approach. Thus, OSCAR had to go back to an new, flexible online approach.

A conference “formula” to inform about Open Access
On February 13th 2020 in ONERA Palaiseau a pilot conference titled "Open Science, Why? How? How far?" with Marin Dacos (OS Advisor the French Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation) took place
Similar conferences could be organized in European AAT institutions to inform researchers and answer their questions.

T3.2: Identification and engagement of international partners
Analysis of scientific publications in AAT research by assessing the share of Gold Open Access in US and Chinese publications compared to European ones.

AAT research in the EU
The Scopus corpus contains 1851 publications produced in EU in AAT research from 2015 to 2019.
Both Scopus and CORDIS have been consulted to identify potentially suitable projects and to select 19 relevant projects.

WP4 – Constraints and the OSCAR Code of Conduct
T4.1 Analysis of WP2 and WP3 results: legal and contractual constraints, challenges and opportunities for implementing OS in European AAT research;
Challenges found:
OS in the European landscape is rapidly changing.
AAT characterised by competitive thinking or a competitive mindset.
Only open access is widely known.
Misconceptions of the relation between OS and intellectual property.
Fear of losing IP to its competitors.

Opportunities found:
Open access already mentioned in the GAM and the RfP.
OS is compatible with the current CAMs
Faster innovation cycles and easier communication supported by OS.
Risk distribution of cost intensive AAT projects is possible with OS.
Open access publications are more visible than regular publications

Key actions found:
Further development of the existing communication strategy
Develop opt-in, opt-out or hybrid application models
Emphasis on current best practices and concepts already used in AAT and in OS.
Point out specific incentives and gains for the AAT community
Point out or establish clear rules for using OS
Provide guidance for the scientists and the industry partners
Create fact sheets, user stories, FAQ and templates that deals with facts and misconceptions of OS

T4.2 Methodology for the OSCAR code of conduct
Further recommendations derived:
1. To identify and incorporate lessons learned by other code of conduct projects.
2. To identify and commit to best practices using de facto standards of existing code of conduct projects.
3. To integrate the code of conduct development and maintenance workflow with the existing workflows of the European Commission.
4. To develop an additional framework for clean, simple, flexible opt-in, opt-out models for integrating OS in AAT projects.
5. To develop inputs to the general project communication strategies (WP6).
6. The project developed additional information materials like fact sheets and templates to guide the AAT community and address their fears and pain points.

T4.3 Iterative preparation of the OSCAR Code of Conduct as a living document continuously and iteratively improved and simulated application in pilot cases (→ OSCAR website).

WP5 Demonstration and Validation of the OSCAR OS Code of Conduct in Pilot Projects

WP6 – Networking, Dissemination & Exploitation (D&E)
Main objectives of WP6:
Ensuring effective and sustainable dissemination of knowledge and information produced during the project
Providing open access (if applicable) to results achieved
Setting-up a data management policy
Monitoring OSCAR exploitation, dissemination and networking activities
Establishing an active network of individual stakeholders, organizations and project consortia.

WP7 – Ethics requirements
Implementing a GDPR compliance policy to handle personal data (e.g. contact data)
OSCAR provided the following progress beyond the state of the art, expected results and potential impacts:
- Analysis of OS in the European AAT research landscape (production side, not transport operations)
- Analysis of the current perception of OS in the landscape.
- In-depth linguistic analysis of important CAMs.
- A way towards OS in European AAT research projects.
- OSCAR OS Code of Conduct, iteratively improved, its applicability demonstrated and validated.
- Guidelines supporting the implementation process
- Increased awareness of OS's potential

Achieved impact A:
Setting up a community of transport research organisations willing to work on the basis of a commonly agreed OS Code of Conduct.
Contribution A:
OSCAR attracts motivated representatives from the AAT research community and beyond.

Achieved impact B:
Contribution to creating a solid knowledge base on the implementation of OS approaches in transport research, and in particular on current constraints and bottlenecks in this field.
Contribution B:
OSCAR uses an in-depth statistical investigations of several projects and events, workshops, interviews etc. to achieve a detailed understanding of the whole AAT landscape.

Achieved impact C:
Improved efficiency, quality and integrity and, when relevant, interdisciplinarity of transport research, speed up the path from research to innovation and promote citizen’s engagement in the scientific process.
Contribution C:
OSCAR reveals the added value of OS in AAT research.