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Electrodynamic Tether Technology for Passive Consumable-less Deorbit Kit

Deliverables

Bulk and Coating Characterization

Coated LWTs will be tested in the vacuum chamber to determine the work function in addition to optical tests mechanical tests traction and fatigue thermal cycling Atomic Oxygen and Ultraviolet radiation A bulk measurement will serve as a reference for the LWTs

DK Test and Verification

DeOrbit Kit test verification report Statement of compliance to the requirements verifiable by Test and Inspection

Assessment for Industrial Production

All processes and technologies used for the development of the C12A7e powder the pastes or slurries coating technologies as well as batch based and continuous furnace processes will be rated with respect to material performance scalability costs and industrial transferability aiming on the fabrication of long LWT components by continuous processes

DK Target Requirements

DeOrbit Kit Target Requirement document with justification Document includes functional performance operational and verification requirements

LWT Mission Design

Document describing the algorithms to make optimal mission design with LWTs In particular the algorithms provide the optimal tether geometry shape and dimensions It considers both deorbit and reboost missions and the corresponding figures of merit such as system mass deorbit time system efficiency tether cut probability etc The algorithms will be used to calculate the optimal performance of LWT in the two scenarios as a function of the physical properties of the LWT

Model vs Experiment Validation

Document with confrontations and discussions of the predictions provided by the theoretical models developed for the current exchange of LWTs with round and tape geometries and the experimental results obtained in the vacuum chamber

DM Baseline Design

The report illustrates the results of the tradeoff analysis among different mechanical solutions the preliminary definition of requirements and presents the deployment mechanism baseline concept

Powder Synthesis and First paste

Two synthesis routes for the C12A7-base material (solid state reaction and glass ceramic route, both including doping for enhanced photoelectron emission) and a thermal treatment for the transformation into the electrid C12A7:e- will be developed in order to provide a processable powder quality. Sintered hollow cathodes made of C12A7:e powder will be manufactured and available for characterization of photoelectron behavior (TUD) as well as for the development and qualification of suitable adhesive brazing pastes. First composite pastes based on C12A7:e- powder and brazing alloy powders will be available and characterized ready for coating experiments on metal foils on LWT by screen printing processes (20x20mm2).

LWT Performance and Applications

The document describes the performance of optimallydesigned LWTs in deorbit and reboost mission in Low Earth Orbit and also in other interesting enviroment such as Jupiters magnetosphere For the dynamics it considers rigid and flexible tether models thus including possible instabilities and control strategies for mitigation

LWT Model and Target Requirements

Document with a detailed description of the LWT/plasma model for round and tape tether geometries. Precise list of the target requirements, i.e. the optical, mechanical and thermal properties that the LWT should satisfy to meet the performance in deorbit and re-boost missions.

Project Website

Public website with information about the space debris problem, the tether solution and the goals of E.T.PACK. It also includes information about the partners and their roles in the development of the deorbit kit. The website will be updated periodically with the publications list, presentations in international conferences, and main results, including simulation data.

LWT Demonstrator

Scaled amounts of C12A7:e- powders (100g per batch size) will be available for manufacturing of multicomponent pastes and slurries consisting of C12A7:e- and brazing adhesive. The pastes, the screen printing and the slurry casting process will be qualified for coating of metal foils with a length of 50cm. Results of a feasibility study on thermal firing processes based on continuous furnace technologies for crack free and functional coatings on LWT are available and reported. Functionally coated LWT-demonstrators with a length of 50cm will we analysed in terms of photoemission characteristics and compared with single component bulk hollow cathodes.

Data Management Plan

Management plan of the data that will be generated in E.T.PACK. It will be mainly focussed on the numerical data generated on emissive Langmuir probes and its application in flight simulator of low work function tethers.

Publications

Key design and operation factors for high performance of C12A7:e- based cathodes

Author(s): A. Post, J.F. Plaza, J. Toledo, D. Zschätzsch, M. Reitemeyer, L. Chen, A. Gurciullo, A. Siegel, P. J. Klar, P. Lascombes and B. Seifert
Published in: IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2022, ISSN 1757-8981
Publisher: IOP Publication
DOI: 10.1088/1757-899x/1226/1/012092

Design of a hollow cathode thruster: concepts, parameter study and initial test results

Author(s): Norman Gondol, Martin Tajmar
Published in: CEAS Space Journal, 2021, ISSN 1868-2502
Publisher: Springer Verlag
DOI: 10.1007/s12567-021-00369-1

Improved Thermal and Mechanical Properties of [Ca <sub>24</sub> Al <sub>28</sub> O <sub>64</sub> ] <sup>4+</sup> (4e <sup>−</sup> ) Electride Ceramic by Adding Mo Metal

Author(s): Katja Waetzig; Jochen Schilm; Christian Drobny; Martin Tajmar
Published in: Advanced Engineering Materials, Issue 10, 2023, ISSN 1527-2648
Publisher: Wiley
DOI: 10.1002/adem.202201286

Electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties of [Ca 24 Al 28 O 64 ] 4+ (4e − ) electride ceramic

Author(s): Katja Waetzig, Jochen Schilm
Published in: International Journal of Ceramic Engineering & Science, 2021, ISSN 2578-3270
Publisher: Wiley Periodicals LLC
DOI: 10.1002/ces2.10098

Cross-verification and benchmarking analysis of electrodynamic tether simulators

Author(s): Gabriel Borderes-Mottaa, Gabriel de Haro-Pizarrosoa, Gangqiang Li, Hanze Yu, Zheng H. Zhu, Giulia Sarego, Giacomo Colombatti, Enrico C. Lorenzini, Jesse K. McTernan, Brian E. Gilchrist, Sven G. Bilen, Satomi Kawamoto, Yasushi Ohkawa, Gonzalo S´anchez-Arriaga
Published in: Acta Astronautica, 2023, ISSN 0094-5765
Publisher: Pergamon Press Ltd.
DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2023.04.015

A bare-photovoltaic tether for consumable-less and autonomous space propulsion and power generation

Author(s): M. Tajmar, G. Sánchez-Arriaga
Published in: Acta Astronautica, Issue 180, 2021, Page(s) 350-360, ISSN 0094-5765
Publisher: Pergamon Press Ltd.
DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2020.12.053

Deorbiting Performance of Electrodynamic Tethers to Mitigate Space Debris

Author(s): Giulia Sarego, Lorenzo Olivieri, Andrea Valmorbida, Carlo Bettanini, Giacomo Colombatti, Marco Pertile and Enrico C. Lorenzini
Published in: International Journal of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, 2021, Page(s) 185-191, ISSN 1307-6892
Publisher: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

Deployment requirements for deorbiting electrodynamic tether technology

Author(s): Sarego, G.; Olivieri, L.; Valmorbida, A.; Brunello, A.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Tarabini Castellani, L.; Urgoiti, E.; Ortega, A.; Borderes-Motta, G.; Sánchez-Arriaga, G.
Published in: CEAS Space Journal, Issue 1, 2021, ISSN 1868-2502
Publisher: Springer Verlag
DOI: 10.1007/s12567-021-00349-5

Test of Tethered Deorbiting of Space Debris

Author(s): Lorenzo Olivieri, Andrea Valmorbida, Giulia Sarego, Enrico Lungavia, Davide Vertuani & Enrico C. Lorenzini
Published in: Advances in Astronautics Science and Technology, 2020, ISSN 2524-5260
Publisher: Springer
DOI: 10.1007/s42423-020-00068-9

Low work-function tether Deorbit Kit

Author(s): L. Tarabini Castellani, A. Ortega, A. Giménez, E. Urgoiti, G. Sánchez-Arriaga, G. Borderes-Motta, E.C. Lorenzini, M. Tajmar, K. Wätzig, A. Post, J.F. Plaza
Published in: Journal of Space Safety Engineering, 2020, ISSN 2468-8967
Publisher: Elsevier
DOI: 10.1016/j.jsse.2020.07.001

Development and testing of a low-current applied-field magnetoplasmadynamic thruster with a rectangular discharge channel,

Author(s): N Gondol and M. Tajmar
Published in: Journal of Electric Propulsion, 2022, ISSN 2731-4596
Publisher: Springer
DOI: 10.1007/s44205-022-00025-8

Kinetic analysis of the plasma sheath around an electron-emitting object with elliptic cross section

Author(s): Luca Chiabó, Sadaf Shahsavani, Gonzalo Sánchez-Arriaga
Published in: Physical Review E, Issue 104/5, 2021, ISSN 2470-0045
Publisher: American Physical Society
DOI: 10.1103/physreve.104.055204

An in-line damper for tethers-in-space oscillations dissipation

Author(s): L. Olivieri, A. Brunello, G. Sarego, A. Valmorbida, E.C. Lorenzini
Published in: Acta Astronautica, Issue 189, 2021, Page(s) 559-566, ISSN 0094-5765
Publisher: Pergamon Press Ltd.
DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2021.09.012

Electrical model and optimal design scheme for low work-function tethers in thrust mode

Author(s): G. Sánchez-Arriaga, J.R. Sanmartín
Published in: Aerospace Science and Technology, Issue 96, 2020, Page(s) 105519, ISSN 1270-9638
Publisher: Elsevier BV
DOI: 10.1016/j.ast.2019.105519

Ionospheric Experiment with a Low Work Function Tether Loop

Author(s): G. Sanchez-Arriaga, S. Naghdi
Published in: Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Issue 43/2, 2020, Page(s) 212-221, ISSN 1533-3884
Publisher: AMER INST AERONAUTICS ASTRONAUTICS,
DOI: 10.2514/1.g004746

Contacting Methods for C12A7 Electride Ceramic

Author(s): Wätzig, Katja; Rost, Axel; Schilm, Jochen; Tajmar, M.; Michaelis, Alexander
Published in: Journal of Ceramic Science and Technology, Issue 1, 2019, ISSN 2190-9385
Publisher: Goeller Verlag GmbH
DOI: 10.4416/JCST2019-00032

Experimental investigation of electric propulsion systems using C12A7 electride hollow cathodes

Author(s): N. Gondol and M. Tajmar
Published in: CEAS Space Journal, 2022, ISSN 1868-2510
Publisher: Springer
DOI: 10.1007/s12567-022-00446-z

Parametrization of current–voltage characteristics and operation domains of cylindrical emissive probes in collisionless Maxwellian plasmas at rest

Author(s): S Shahsavani, X Chen, G Sanchez-Arriaga
Published in: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Issue 63/11, 2021, Page(s) 115018, ISSN 0741-3335
Publisher: Institute of Physics Publishing
DOI: 10.1088/1361-6587/ac2559

Deorbit kit demonstration mission

Author(s): L. Tarabini Castellani, S. García González, A. Ortega, S. Madrid, E.C. Lorenzini, L. Olivieri, G. Sarego, A. Brunello, A. Valmorbida, M. Tajmar, C. Drobny, J-P. Wulfkuehler, R. Nerger, K. Wätzig, S. Shahsavani and G. Sánchez-Arriaga.
Published in: Journal of Space Safety Engineering, 2022, ISSN 2468-8967
Publisher: ELSEVIER
DOI: 10.1016/j.jsse.2022.01.004

The E.T.PACK project: Towards a fully passive and consumable-less deorbit kit based on low-work-function tether technology

Author(s): G. Sánchez-Arriaga, S. Naghdi, K. Wätzig, J. Schilm, E.C. Lorenzini, M. Tajmar, E. Urgoiti, L. Tarabini Castellani, J.F. Plaza, A. Post
Published in: Acta Astronautica, 2020, ISSN 0094-5765
Publisher: Pergamon Press Ltd.
DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2020.03.036

A volume-averaged plasma model for heaterless C12A7 electride hollow cathodes

Author(s): N. Gondol and M. Tajmar
Published in: CEAS Space Journal, 2022, ISSN 1868-2510
Publisher: Springer
DOI: 10.1007/s12567-022-00449-w

Limitations of stationary Vlasov-Poisson solvers in probe theory

Author(s): L. Chiabó, G. Sánchez-Arriaga
Published in: Journal of Computational Physics, Issue 438, 2021, Page(s) 110366, ISSN 0021-9991
Publisher: Academic Press
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcp.2021.110366

Validation of enabling technologies for deorbiting devices based on electrodynamic tethers

Author(s): A. Valmorbida, L. Olivieri, A. Brunello, G. Sarego, G. Sánchez-Arriaga,E.C. Lorenzini
Published in: Acta Astronautica, 2022, ISSN 0094-5765
Publisher: Pergamon Press Ltd.
DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2022.06.013

Attitude determination and control for the deployment preparation phase of a space tether mission

Author(s): S. Garcia-Gonzalez and G. Sanchez-Arriaga
Published in: Acta Astronautica, 2022, ISSN 0094-5765
Publisher: Pergamon Press Ltd.
DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2022.01.011

A code for the analysis of missions with electrodynamic tethers

Author(s): G. Sánchez-Arriaga, G. Borderes-Motta, L. Chiabó
Published in: Acta Astronautica, 2022, ISSN 0094-5765
Publisher: Pergamon Press Ltd.
DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2022.06.021

EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF A DEPLOYMENT MECHANISM FOR TAPE-TETHERED SATELLITES

Author(s): ANDREA VALMORBIDA; Lorenzo Olivieri; Giulia Sarego; Brunello, Alice; Vertuani, Davide; Carlo BETTANINI FECIA DI COSSATO; MARCO PERTILE; ENRICO LORENZINI
Published in: Università degli Studi di Padova - IRIS, Issue 4, 2021
Publisher: IEEE

Space tethers: parameters reconstructions and tests

Author(s): Brunello, Alice; Lorenzo Olivieri; Giulia Sarego; ANDREA VALMORBIDA; Enrico, Lungavia; ENRICO LORENZINI
Published in: Università degli Studi di Padova - IRIS, Issue 1, 2021
Publisher: IEEE

STATUS OF DEVELOPMENT OF A DEORBIT DEVICE BASED ON ELECTRODYNAMIC TETHER TECHNOLOGY IN THE E.T.PACK PROJECT

Author(s): G. Sánchez-Arriaga, L. Tarabini Castellani, E. C. Lorenzini, M. Tajmar, K. Wätzig, and A. Post
Published in: 8th European Conference on Space Debris,, 2021
Publisher: ESA/ESOC

Development roadmap of a deorbit kit based on electrodynamic tether technology

Author(s): Tarabini-Castellani, Lorenzo; Ortega, Asier; Garcia, Sergio; Madrid, Salvador; Sanchez-Arriaga, Gonzalo; Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Olivieri, Lorenzo; Sarego, Giulia; Valmorbida, Andrea; Tajmar, Martin; Drobny, Christian; Wulfkühler, Jan-Philipp; Wätzig, Katja
Published in: 71st International Astronautical Congress, IAC 2020, Issue 1, 2020
Publisher: International Astronautical Federation -IAF-

Modeling and mission analysis of Low Work Function tether

Author(s): Shahsavani, Sadaf
Published in: Issue 3, 2022
Publisher: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

Book of Abstracts of The Sixth International Conference on Tethers in Space

Author(s): Malerba, Franco; Bekey, Ivan; González del Amo, José; Lu, Hongshi; Li, Ai-jun; Changqing, Wang; Ledkov, Alexander; Ohkawa, Yasushi; Zhu, Zheng H. (George); Vasiliev, V.V.; Alpatov, A.P.; Burkhardt, Zachary; Gilchrist, Brian; Wei, Yuanyuan; Wang, Changqing; Iakubivskyi, Iaroslav; Santangelo, Andrew; Sun, Xin; Yang, Keying; Sánchez Arriaga, Gonzalo; Kojima, Hirohisa; García-Pelayo, Ricardo; Bomb
Published in: Issue 1, 2019
Publisher: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

Intellectual Property Rights

SYSTEM FOR IN-ORBIT PROPULSION VIA FLOATING CONDUCTOR CABLES

Application/Publication number: 16 863722
Date: 2016-11-11

SYSTEM FOR IN-ORBIT PROPULSION VIA FLOATING CONDUCTOR CABLES

Application/Publication number: 16 863722
Date: 2016-11-11

SYSTEM FOR GENERATING ELECTRICAL POWER IN ORBIT BY MEANS OF FLOATING CONDUCTOR CABLES

Application/Publication number: 16 863721
Date: 2016-11-11

SYSTEM FOR GENERATING ELECTRICAL POWER IN ORBIT BY MEANS OF FLOATING CONDUCTOR CABLES

Application/Publication number: 16 863721
Date: 2016-11-11

FONKS-G: Free-of-noise Kinetic Solver for Generic Geometries

Application/Publication number: M -004148/2021
Date: 2021-06-10

FONKS-C: Free-of-noise Kinetic Solver for Cylindrical Geometry

Application/Publication number: M- 004149/2021
Date: 2021-06-10

BETsMA v.2.0

Application/Publication number: M- 007775/2020
Date: 2020-12-18

FONKS-G: Free-of-noise Kinetic Solver for Generic Geometries

Application/Publication number: M -004148/2021
Date: 2021-06-10

BETsMA v.2.0

Application/Publication number: M- 007775/2020
Date: 2020-12-18

FONKS-C: Free-of-noise Kinetic Solver for Cylindrical Geometry

Application/Publication number: M- 004149/2021
Date: 2021-06-10

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