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Optimal utilization of seafood side-streams through the design of new holistic process lines

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - WASEABI (Optimal utilization of seafood side-streams through the design of new holistic process lines)

Reporting period: 2019-05-01 to 2020-10-31

The current exploitation of the aquatic resources is hampered by inefficiency as up to 70 % end up as low-value products or waste, which is unsustainable considering the rising populations. In order to utilise this currently poorly exploited biomass for higher value purposes, provision of proper logistics and infrastructure to ensure high quality of side-streams for a prolonged window of time is essential. Also promising technologies currently available at lab level need to be adapted to industrial scale and integrated into a biorefinery approach.
The Objectives of WaSeaBi are:
A. To identify hurdles and bottlenecks that prevent exploitation of side-streams
B. To develop improved sorting and storage technologies for side-streams to use in house and during transport
C. To develop tools for supporting decisions for valorisation of side-streams
D. To develop guidelines for optimal logistics throughout the supply chain
E. To offer more high-quality side-streams to biobased industries
F. To develop/implement innovative processes for production of new ingredients from high-quality side-streams
G. Development of biorefinery concepts for the valorisation of seafood side-streams
H. Demonstration of the potential for integrating the developed concepts into the current industrial landscape of the participating industries
I. Quantify the environmental, economic and social impacts of the studied value chains, processes and products in order to guide the consortium in the development of feasible solutions though preliminary life cycle assessments
J. To maximize the influence of the project results both during and after the project by targeting project partners, enterprises within the fisheries industry, knowledge institutions, innovation networks/clusters, associations, the scientific community, as well as policy makers and regulators at a regional and European level
With reference to the above objectives the following work has been carried out. No reference means no work has been done.

A. To identify the hurdles and bottlenecks, which prevents exploitation of seafood side-streams, an industry and a consumer survey have been carried out. The hurdles and bottlenecks in the industry are lack of technology, space and personnel plus lack of market for final products. It was found that the consumer barriers and motives are the eating quality and that consumers want to be informed about the origin and environmental impact of the ingredients, raw material and products. A clean label is a motive for the consumer to buy the product. It can be concluded that there is a need for developing technologies that can ensure that foods containing ingredients from seafood side-streams are of high eating quality and that consumer barriers can be overcome by providing the requested information.
B. Currently, herring side-streams are not sorted into different fractions such as guts, heads, tails and frames, which makes it impossible to use the different types of side-streams for different purposes. Further, mixing everything together causes contamination of blood, enzymes and fat on otherwise clean parts, such as the backbones. To solve this a filleting line for sorting of herring solid side-streams into 4 different fractions has been re-built and installed. Seasonal variation in compositional features, size distribution and stability of these different fractions has been investigated. Several promising strategies have been developed based on new cooling/handling, and treatments with antioxidants. For example, solid salmon side-streams that were previously stored in bulk at room temperature are now stored sorted at 5°C, and resulting in significant improvement in quality of the fish meal produced. For solid herring and cod side-streams, rinsing or dipping them in solutions from the antioxidant mixture Duralox-MANC or from a rosemary extract have extensively prolonged their storage stability on ice. An ongoing questionnaire for fishing vessels has been constructed to find out what is done with by-products/by-catch on board fishing vessels today in DK and ES and what is the future potential for changing the habits. The best practice is to store and manage the by-catches with the same procedure as regular catches for human consumption allowing a good quality for up to seven days.
C. One of the decision tools is an app, which guides the seafood producer on what to do with their side-stream based on the information that is entered into the app about the raw material, the side-stream and the processes it has been exposed to. The base frame for the app has been designed using the mussel cooking water as case story. The beta version of the tool has been created.
E. The development and installation of the sorting system for herring side-streams has increased the number of side-streams available from herring from 1 to 4. Moreover, the development of the storage solutions described in C has increased the quality and shelf-life of already available solid salmon and cod side-streams as well as the new solid side-streams from herring.
F. Different approaches to develop new ingredients from seafood side-streams have been used:
• Different flocculation techniques to concentrate proteins have been tested on liquid side-streams of herring and mussel cooking waters with recovery levels up to 96 % and 50 %, respectively.
• Several concentration technologies have been tested on the mussel cooking waters to generate savoury ingredients and to reduce the salt content while reducing the effluent organic load.
• Work has been done to optimize the pH-shift technology for recovery of protein in liquid and solid side-streams of cod and herring processing. Results showed that proteins isolated from head, frame and head+ frame have gel-forming capacity.
• Work has been done to implement and optimize technologies to produce bioactive peptides with antioxidant or antimicrobial activity, and savoury peptides (rich in glutamic acid) from salmon, herring, mussel and cod side-streams. By applying enzymatic hydrolysis using different enzyme mixtures, bioactive or savoury peptides can be obtained. Good results on peptides yields have been obtained but low or no-bioactivity was found. Regarding flavouring agents, we successfully produced hydrolysates with increased content of glutamic acid.
I. A preliminary life cycle analysis to identify the potential environmental impacts of a fishmeal production plant (from fish side-streams) including the logistics was performed during the period.
J. WaSeaBi has been disseminated through the project website, 3 newsletters, 2 press releases and over 100 posts on social media. WaSeaBi partners have participated in at least 17 dissemination events where WaSeaBi has been on the agenda. The first scientific manuscript has been submitted.
• A sorting machine for herring side-streams has been installed at Scandic Pelagic and has been evaluated 6 times between March and October 2020. This technology can most likely be used for other small pelagic fish.
• An antioxidant dipping technology has been developed and tested numerous times in lab scale, and twice in small scale at Scandic Pelagic. This technology can most likely be used on various side-streams from different seafood and will be highly relevant for the seafood industry in general. The socio-economic impact will be evaluated later in the project.
New filleting line sorts the heads, guts, back-bones and tails so they end up in separate containers
Trial with cod side-streams to improve oxidative stability to maintain quality and shelf life
New enzymes from Novozymes for production of savoury ingredients are tested on cod solid side-stream