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Forthcoming Research and Industry for European and National Development of SHIP

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - FRIENDSHIP (Forthcoming Research and Industry for European and National Development of SHIP)

Reporting period: 2020-05-01 to 2021-10-31

Despite process heat is recognized as the application with the highest potential among solar heating and cooling, and despite the European solar potential is largely untapped, Solar Heat for Industrial Processes (SHIP) still presents a modest share of about 200 MWth installed capacity worldwide. The FRIENDSHIP project will ensure a wider deployment of the SHIP technology among industrial sectors such as chemical, metallurgy, wood, plastic or textile industries. It is done through the development of easy operable systems for heating and cooling, combining boosted market available solar technologies and advanced thermal components with reduced costs, such as high-temperature heat pump, thermal chillers and combined heat storage.
Important for society is integration of solar thermal technologies as relevant decrease of industrial CO2 Emissions.
The FRIENDSHIP project plans to develop 2 modular systems that will combine and contain specific objectives, i.e. Highly available solar systems, High-temperature heat pumps, High performances chillers for cold production, Combined and high density heat storages, Validation of the integrated subsystems in relevant conditions…
WP1 was a preliminary study of the requirements and parameters of the project.
The WP was over in M6, and all the requirements were defined.

WP2 main goals are to design the solar thermal field system including peripheries, piping and operation concept; to develop a concept for operation with high availability of solar heat; to develop spectrally selective coatings with improved optical properties applicable by electroplating or spray coating technique; and to assess the lifetime of spectrally selective coatings.
Until M18, the solar thermal system and the balance of plant (BoP) were designed, whereas the development of novel absorber coatings is ongoing.

WP3 main goals are to develop concepts for a high temperature heat pump based on water (R718) and CO2 (R744) as working medium, composed, among others, of a prototype of a multistage turbocompressor using steam (R718) compression up to 15 bar; to test the turbocompressor and validate the target isentropic efficiency (75%); to develop in-house modelling tools to enable evaluation of reversed CO2 (R744) and water (R718) cycles in relevant conditions; and to determine the optimum integration approach for relevant conditions, including off-design considerations.
Up to M18, high-temperature heat pump concept was developed and the compressor prototype for high-temperature steam heat pump is under construction.

WP4 main goals are to propose design concepts of energy-efficient thermal-driven ejector chillers for the supply of industrial process cold and AC; to develop design concepts of advanced multi-effect absorption chillers for sub-zero cold production with improved efficiency and profitability; and to realize and assess the performances of a multi-effect absorption chiller for cold production down to -20°C.
Until M18, Ammonia has been identified as a prime candidate for high-COP ejector chiller cycles and the optimal design of absorption chiller concepts targeting cold production down to -20°C (short term) and -40°C (long-term) is ongoing.

WP5 main goals are to develop a high-density heat storage for SHIP applications, as well as to realize and assess a demonstrator at TRL5 for SHIP applications.
In the first 18 months, the CHS was designed, the feasibility of aluminium tubes was checked, tube configurations for thermal storage were sized and a suitable phase change material was selected.

In addition, the website was developed, the dissemination materials finalized, the results were published and the participation in relevant international events assured.
The FRIENDSHIP project plans to develop 2 modular systems that will combine and contain some specific objectives, among them:
1. Highly available solar systems with a solar share of 30-40% combined with improved efficiency for low-cost PTC (+2%) & higher temperature (170°C) at reduced costs (70% of reduction for the PTC reflectors).
Current status of this objective: reflector materials from new suppliers are being tested to reduce costs of material and simplified procurement and production processes are being tested. The solar tracking system is being redesigned to reduce costs and increase flexibility in sizes and arrangements of solar fields. Two different coatings are being developed for the solar receiver: an electroplated Co-Cr coating and spray carbon nanotube coating.
2. High-temperature heat pumps (short term 200°C – long term 250°C)
Current status of this objective: for the development of the high-temperature lubrication free turbo-compressor, several potential suppliers have been considered and contacted. SINTEF has received a price offer from Rotrex, which is now our preferred supplier.
3. High performances chillers for cold production (from -10°C with an ejection chiller, to short term -20°C, long term-40°C with an absorption chiller).
Current status of this objective: for absorption chiller, CEA carried out numerical studies to develop GAX cycles that respond to the short-term objective of cold production at -20°C, as well as to the long-term objective of cold production at -40°C. CEA also finished the design of the 10 kWth prototype for cold production at -20°C, including the technical specifications of all components and instruments. Consultation and purchase are ongoing. The progress is in line with the planning of the project.
4. Combined and high-density heat storages (70 kWh/m3)
Current status of this objective: a eutectic mixture of calcium nitrate and potassium nitrate was identified as a low cost and non-corrosive PCM suitable for FRIENDSHIP project specifications, and thoroughly characterized. Filling procedures are under development. Regarding the 50 kWh CHS prototype design, first an iterative design process involving FEM models and 1-D dynamic models allowed to select three promising design options. Then a preliminary engineering study was done to choose the best option. Finally, a very innovative design with concentric tubes and extruded aluminium inserts was selected.

Here a small description of the expected potential impacts of FRIENDSHIP:
1. Increased decarbonisation of the industrial sector and a reduced dependency on fossil fuels.
The chemical industry is the most energy-intensive branch of industry. FRIENDSHIP solutions will have a strong impact in the decarbonisation of the industrial sector and on the overall reduced dependency from fossil fuels.
2. Contribute to the development of relevant BREFs under the Industrial Emissions Directive
For the chemical sector, several BREF documents are relevant and FRIENDSHIP results will be adapted into several ones. Following the analysis of the BREFs documents of chemical and wood industries, FRIENDSHIP will provide a new SHIP technology chapter to be included in the updated version of the BREFs.
3. Reduction of emission of air pollutants (KPIs)
According to the BREF document analysis and the European Environment Agency, the main air pollutants from the European industries are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX), and volatile organic compounds (VOC). In hybridisation or substitution of combustion processes, installing SHIP200 or SHIP300 will have a positive impact on the reduction of the air pollutants.