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Integrated Multimodal Airport Operations for Efficient Passenger Flow Management

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - IMHOTEP (Integrated Multimodal Airport Operations for Efficient Passenger Flow Management)

Reporting period: 2020-06-01 to 2021-05-31

The airport of the future is expected to become a multimodal connection platform, creating the conditions for travellers to reach their destination by the most efficient and sustainable combination of modes and allowing the airport and its surrounding region to make a better use of their resources. The goal of IMHOTEP is to develop a concept of operations and a set of data analysis methods, predictive models and decision support tools that allow information sharing, common situational awareness and real-time collaborative decision-making between airports and ground transport stakeholders.

The specific objectives of the project are the following:
1. Propose a concept of operations for the extension of airport collaborative decision-making to ground transport stakeholders, including local transport authorities, traffic agencies, transport operators and mobility service providers.
2. Develop new data collection, analysis and fusion methods able to provide a comprehensive view of the door-to-door passenger trajectory through the coherent integration of different types of high resolution passenger movement data collected from personal mobile devices and digital sensors.
3. Develop predictive models and decision support tools able to anticipate the evolution of an airport’s passenger flows within the day of operations and assess the operational impact on both airport processes and the ground transport system, with the aim of enabling real-time collaborative decision-making between airports and ground transport stakeholders and enhanced passenger information services.
4. Validate the proposed concept and the newly developed methods and tools through a set of case studies conducted in direct collaboration with airports, local transport authorities and transport operators. The case studies will cover two airports with heterogeneous characteristics and serving different markets, namely the Palma de Mallorca and the London City airports.
During the first 12 months of the project (1 June 2020-31 May 2021), the work has focused on:
- producing the Project Management Plan and other relevant management documentation;
- creating the IMHOTEP Concept of Operations, which extends the current A-CDM to include ground transport stakeholders;
- defining the case studies that will be analysed in the simulation experiments;
- producing a set of new data analytics techniques for the characterisation of the door-to-door passenger journey;
- building the simulation tools for both the passengers' access/egress to the airport and the terminal processes.

The management, communication and ethics deliverables produced during the first 12 months are listed below:
- D1.1 Project Management Plan
- D1.2 Data Management Plan
- D8.1 Project Website (
- D9.1 POPD - Requirement No.1
- D9.2 H - Requirement No. 3

Two technical deliverables have also been produced:
- D2.1 IMHOTEP ConOps, which describes the ConOps of the IMHOTEP project and describes the characteristics of the proposed extension of A-CDM from the point of view of the different stakeholders;
- D2.2 Specification of Case Studies, which specifies the Palma de Mallorca (PMI) and London City (LCY) case studies and the required input data.

A variety of actions have been put in place to disseminate the project findings, including the project website, the organisation of the 1st IMHOTEP Stakeholder Workshop and other working sessions with industrial and academic players, and the presentation of the project at the SESAR Innovation Days 2020.
The expected progress beyond the state-of-the-art includes: (i) enhanced understanding of passenger behaviour, including the reconstruction of the passengers’ door-to-door itineraries with an unprecedented level of accuracy and detail, which will allow the identification of travel purpose and the characterisation of travellers' profile; (ii) the integrated modelling of airport access/egress and terminal processes; (iii) the definition and assessment of new intermodal concepts and passenger information services, based not only on travel supply information, but also on accurate passenger behaviour information; (iv) the extension of the A-CDM concept to include gorund transport modes, enabling the optimisation of the performance of the multimodal transport system as a whole.

After the first year of the project, IMHOTEP has:
- advanced the state-of-the-art in data analytics for the characterisation of passenger and trip profiles;
- developed the project's Concept of Operations, which builds on the A-CDM concept by adding ground transport stakeholders;
- started the development of the simulation models, including both the airport access/egress and the terminal processes models, which will provide detailed short-term forecasts of airport passenger flows.

During the second year, the project will focus on the completion of the data analytics tasks, the simulation models (access/egress and terminal processes) and the decision support toolset that will be used to understand how different management actions impact on multiple KPIs of the transport system. The newly developed toolset will be demonstrated and evaluated through the Palma de Mallorca (PMI) and London City (LCY) case studies defined during the first year.

The project is expected to have an impact at different levels:
- Improving the interoperability of ATM with other modes of transport and finally the passenger experience.
- Improving the airport environmental sustainability and capacity. A better coordination between air transport and public transport operators is expected to increase the modal share of collective public transport, having a positive impact on the airport environmental sustainability. As far as capacity is concerned, a more accurate characterisation and forecasting of passenger flows will help reduce the risk of capacity bottlenecks at the terminal processes.
- Increasing airport cost efficiency. In the presence of uncertainty about the passengers’ arrival at the terminal, airports need to find a compromise between the risk of bottlenecks and the risk of allocating unnecessary resources. The predictive system currently under development in IMHOTEP will alow airports to allocate their resources more adequately.
- Increasing safety and security levels. IMHOTEP will contribute to increasing the attractiveness of public transport, which will in turn reduce the use of the private car for airport access and thus the risk of road accidents and fatalities. Regarding security, the detailed and accurate forecast of passenger flows provided by IMHOTEP will enable the dynamic management of airport resources to serve the expected demand, avoiding the formation of large queues or crowds that could potentially lead to security hazards.