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Sustainable 5G deployment model for future mobility in the Mediterranean Cross-Border Corridor

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - 5GMED (Sustainable 5G deployment model for future mobility in the Mediterranean Cross-Border Corridor)

Reporting period: 2020-09-01 to 2022-02-28

The Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) strategy of the European Commission (EC) prioritises investment across strategic European transport corridors. The Mediterranean Corridor, primarily consisting of road and rail, is the main east-west axis in the TEN-T network south of the Alps. 5GMED is one out of the seven 5GPPP cross-border corridor projects, but it’s also the only one committed to unlocking roadways/railways synergies to accelerate cross-border large-scale 5G deployments.

The 5GMED project aims to bring a sustainable 5G deployment model for future mobility in the Mediterranean cross- border corridor. 5GMED will demonstrate how a novel multi-stakeholder 5G infrastructure is able to deliver end-to-end Cooperative Connected and Automated Mobility (CCAM) and Future Railway Mobile Communications System (FRMCS) services, along the “Figueres-Perpignan” cross-border corridor between Spain and France by a multi-stakeholder compute and network infrastructure deployed by mobile network operators (MNOs), neutral hosts, and road and rail operators, based on 5G and offering support for AI functions.

5GMED will support:
• Remote driving – automated driving on highways can be performed in full safety, even when a critical event occurs on the Automated Driving System (ADS) preventing the normal system operation beyond the homologated Operation Design Domain (ODD)
• Advanced traffic management – digitalized road infrastructure for intelligent traffic management of the connected and automated vehicles
• Applications and business service continuity in cross-border railway – transition of a commercial train between ADIF in Spain and SNCF in France
• Follow-me infotainment – media modules will be integrated into the network edge node and enable enhanced content distribution strategies.
• Use Case definition and Trials specification
Four automotive and railways use cases were thoroughly defined with high-level functional architectures: remote driving, road infrastructure digitalization, FRMCS applications and business service continuity, and Follow-Me Entertainment.
Service KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) were defined for each use case.
Requirements in terms of 5G feature, compute resources, sensors, Artificial Intelligent (AI) modules, security, and vehicles were defined for each use case.
• Technological extension for scalable and multi-tenant 5G Infrastructure in main transport paths
Performance and functional requirements of the 5GMED infrastructure for each use case were derived from the service KPIs
5G roaming optimization techniques were analysed, and the most suitable among them were selected to minimize delay and interruption time in cross-border scenarios.
An architecture for the 5GMED network and compute infrastructure was designed to facilitate the deployment of the use cases in the automotive and railway scenarios.
Multi-technology Transmission Control Units (TCUs) were defined and partially developed to enable access to multiple radio access technologies.
A 5G cross-operator orchestrator and network slicing manager were designed and partially developed.
Planning for deployment and acquisition of infrastructure elements was performed.
• Automotive use case technology development and initial validation
The automotive use cases' technical, functional, and non-functional requirements were identified and analysed.
The initial architecture at component level for the automotive use cases was designed.
Application components to be deployed in the infrastructure (e.g. sensors) and edge/cloud servers (e.g. backend applications, AI modules) were comprehensively defined and partially developed.
Embedded vehicle components (e.g. application clients, TCU, sensors) required to support automotive use cases were defined and partially developed.
Preliminary tests of initial application components and vehicle components for remote driving were performed in Paris in one small-scale testbed.
Preliminary tests of initial application components for road infrastructure digitalization were performed in the small-scale testbed of Castellolí.
• Railways use case development and initial validation
Technical, functional, and non-functional requirements for the railways use cases were identified and analysed.
The initial architecture at component level for the railways use cases was designed.
Hardware and software components to be deployed onboard the train to support the railways' use cases were defined and partially developed for small scale trials.
• Programmable framework for the management of heterogeneous transport networks in mobility scenarios
• Knowhow and production processes related to architecture, design and integration of 5G multi-operator moving cells for FRMCS business and performance services
• Mechanism to deploy virtualised services in hybrid scenarios (edge / DCs) supporting enable edge migration
• Multi-tenant small cell + RSU with wireless and satellite backhauling
• Embedded software for automated and real-time object recognition in 3D LiDAR data, applied to security in the train
• Affordable and low impact digitalization of road infrastructure using sensors connected to the 5G network
• Level 1 of management: Road servers and algorithms capable of handling local risk situations by using C-ITS messages with very low latency.
• Level 2 of management: Proactive traffic management centres using AI tools traffic to improve traffic safety and flow, even in cross-border scenario.
• Cruise4U: Automated Driving Level 4 on Motorways ready for homologation
• Drive4U Remote: Teleoperation service orchestrated by the VLO XR platform
• 5G Telematic Control Unit demonstrated and tests passed ISUZU Vehicle
• Orchestration platform to natively support infotainment use cases and multi-infrastructure management

Impact 1 - Validation of latest version of 5G technologies and architecture in a CAM context, including validation of innovative business models and applicable standards.
Impact 2 - Validated cost/benefit analysis of cross border 5G deployment enabling CAM along 5G corridors potentially including several business domains.
Impact 3 - Characterisation of 5G Release 16 or beyond for the most advanced CAM use cases (see through, sensor sharing, high density platooning, etc.) including innovative spectrum use.
Impact 4 - Validation of sustainable models combining 5G and AI features to support most advanced CAM use cases.
Impact 5 - Technological validation of 5G introduction for train/railways use cases including FRMCS aspects, migration, spectrum, and co-existence issues with the automotive case
Impact 6 - Development of a sustainable model for a pan-European cloud infrastructure supporting CAM services at European scale.
Impact 7 - Support to sustainable deployment models paving the way towards deployment actions across pan European 5G corridors envisaged for CEF Digital.
Impact 8 - Participation of key European industrial partners of both the ICT and the automotive sectors and with high standardisation impact is desired.
General 5GMED Infographics