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RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEM FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDING HEATING AND ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION

Periodic Reporting for period 1 - RESHeat (RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEM FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDING HEATING AND ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION)

Reporting period: 2020-12-01 to 2022-03-31

What is the problem/issue being addressed ?

RESHeat is an energy trigeneration system, i.e. it uses renewable energy to produce electricity, heat and cold for the needs of residential and public buildings.

The basic features of the proposed solution are: the use of solar energy as the main source of renewable energy; heat and electricity generation using PVT (PhotoVoltaic Thermal) modules of the new design; the use of PVT modules and PTC (Parabolic Trough Collector) equipped with sun-tracking system, increasing the solar energy yield; seasonal underground thermal energy storage; utilizing low-temperature heat from PVT modules for ground thermal regeneration; hutilizing heat pump for space heating and cooling.

Why is it important for society ?

More than half of the annual energy consumption in households is related to space heating and air conditioning. In the European Union, space and domestic hot water heating accounts for 79% of all energy consumed by consumers. Moreover, about 75% of the energy used for these purposes is produced from fossil fuels. Switching to renewable heating and cooling technologies such as biomass boilers and solar heating systems may help reducing fossil fuels utilization. The RESHeat project aims to create an innovative, zero-emission and autonomous energy system based only on Renewable Energy Sources (RES) solutions. The system’s innovations include integrated, cooled solar panels and solar collectors equipped with sun-tracking systems, as well as advanced underground energy storage systems. The aim of the project is to achieve a high efficiency ratio of the heat pump in the long term, which will guarantee efficient underground energy storage, while reducing the amount of energy consumed by the heat pump compressor. In addition, the solution will allow the storage of heat from various sources, including low-temperature waste heat sources.

What are the overall objectives ?

a) Development and application of heating and domestic hot water (DHW) preparation system to cover at least 70% of the total yearly energy demand of a building from RES,
b) Demonstration of the real performance (including economic performance) of innovative renewable and energy-efficient solutions for heating, cooling and DHW preparation in multi-apartment residential buildings and to provide information on the overall system performance to the end-user,
c) Demonstration of system scalability for different types of multi-apartment residential buildings,
d) System technology movement from TRL 7 to TRL 8,
e) Elaboration of the competitiveness in the building value chain and its position in growth markets,
f) Estimation of technical and economic parameters of the system (energy production, annual efficiency, costs, and energy benefit calculations, economic analysis including the worst-case scenario, the return of investment).
During the first reporting period the Working Package WP1 has been completed. The final outcome of the WP is a preeliminary design documentation of the RESHeat system.

In WP 2 the mathematical models of RESHeat systems for three demosites are developed and the simulation have been perfomed with the following results:
a) The total energy demand of the demo site located in Cracow, Poland, is 149.4 MWh/year. In contrast, this demand is 42.2 MWh/year for the demo site located in Limanowa, Poland. The energy demand of the demo site located in Palombara Sabina, Italy, is 173.5 MWh/year.
b) The electricity generation of the stationary and sun-tracking photovoltaic systems is 39.2 MWh/year and 34.28 MWh/year for the demo sites Cracow and Limanowa, respectively. In contrast, the electricity generation of the stationary photovoltaic system for the demo site in Italy is 71.5 MWh/year.
c) The heat pumps' electricity consumption is 47 MWh/year for the Cracow demo site, 14.68 MWh/year Limanowa demo site, and 92 MWh/year for the Palombara demo site.
d) The renewable energy coverage of the demo site in Cracow city is 83%.
e) The energy consumption coverage of the Limanowa demo site is 100%.
f) The renewable energy coverage of the demo site in Palombara Sabina city is 72%

In WP3 the database of RESHeat system components has been implemented in the MATLAB software.
In WP4 the photovoltaic panels have been instaled in Cracow City demosite. Actualy the RESHeat consortium is working on the instalation of underground energy storage unit.
In WP6 the RESHeat project was disseminated on 9 conferences, 2 papers have been also published.
The RESHeat project proposes a breakthrough solution to regenerate the ground heating capacity by using waste-heat from PVT panels and waste heat from sun-tracked solar collectors in time when the output temperature is less than 40oC and cannot be used for domestic water heating. Actually, the RESHeat system is installed in CZAMARA headquarters and yearly averaged COP of heat pump increased from 2 to 5.5. This means that more than 65% of electrical energy to power heat pump compressor is saved with the minimum increase in investment costs. Hence, the RESHeat project can be a milestone for the broader implementation of water to water heat pump based heating systems and the future of EU energy efficiency in buildings.

Development of highly efficient ground regeneration technique due to the heat transfer from the underground storage unit to the ground and from boreholes to the ground, therefore the COP of the heat pump is not decreasing in consecutive years. This is, in fact, the most significant innovation of RESHeat solution, which leads to maintaining the constant COP over the years of heat pump operation. There are no solutions available on the market that allows for effective ground regeneration and maintaining constant COP of the heat pump, which decreases the device efficiency year by year.
RESHeat syste