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QUANTITIES, UNITS AND MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES FOR IONIZING RADIATIONS

Objective


During the period 1985-1989 the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) published several reports of major significance to those concerned with radiation protection problems. In addition, drafting work was completed on other reports, with some about to enter the ICRU's review process. Further, work continued on the preparation of other important reports, and several new efforts were initiated aimed at the preparation of ICRU recommendations on topics of importance to those responsible for radiation protection activities.
The new reports published included the following:
ICRU Report 38. Dose and volume specification for reporting intracavitary therapy in gynecology;
ICRU Report 39. Determination of dose equivalents resulting from external radiation sources;
ICRU Report 40. The quality factor in radiation protection;
ICRU Report 41. Modulation transfer function of screen-film systems;
ICRU Report 42. Use of computers in external beam radiotherapy procedures with high-energy photons and electrons;
ICRU Report 43. Determination of dose equivalents from external radiation sources, part II;
ICRU Report 44. Tissue substitutes in radiation dosimetry and measurement;
ICRU Report 45. Clinical neutron dosimetry part 1: Determination of absorbed dose in a patient treated by external beams of fast neutrons.
Of particular significance in connection with radiation protection concerns are ICRU Reports 39, 40, 43 and 44 which provide recommendations of direct relevance to radiation protection activities. They provide the basis for quantities appropriate for assessing radiation exposure, the definition of the quantities, guidance on quality factor and data on tissue substitutes useful in assessing radiation exposure.

A report, Supplemental information on tissue substitutes in radiation dosimetry and measurement, was reviewed by the ICRU at its most recent meeting. The report was approved and will be published as ICRU Report 46. The preparatio n of the printer's manuscript is now underway.

The drafting work on a number of other ICRU reports is essentially complete and they are expected to enter the ICRU's review process soon. Included in this group are reports on:
measurement of dose equivalent;
stopping powers for protons and alpha particles

During the current contract period considerable progress was made on the development of reports treating the following topics:
absorbed dose standards for photon irradiation and their dissemination;
dose specification for reporting external beam therapy with photons and electrons;
dose specification for reporting interstitial therapy;
fundamental quantities and units;
performance assessment in digital representation of images;
phantoms for therapy, diagnosis and protection;
quality assurance in external beam therapy procedures;
statistical methods used in particle counting;
stopping powers for heavy ions

A number of new programs were initiated during the current contract period. Some of these have already advanced to the stage where they are cited in the discussion above. Others that are in the early stages of development include those concerned with the following topics:
proton therapy;
secondary electron spectra resulting from charged particle interactions;
clinical dosimetry for neutrons: specification of beam quality;
in situ gamma spectrometry in the environment;
hyperthermia

Funding Scheme

CSC - Cost-sharing contracts

Coordinator

Int. Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement
Address
Woodmont Avenue 7910
21105 Maryland
United States