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RADIOACTIVITY ESCAPING FROM COAL POWER PLANTS. POLLUTION AND RISKS

Objective

MOST TYPES OF LIGNITES BURNING IN COAL POWER PLANTS IN SEVERAL PLACES OF EUROPEAN COMMUNITY COUNTAIN RADIOACTIVE NUCLIDES ESPECIALLY OF THE URANIUM SERIES. AN ENRICHMENT OF THESE NUCLIDES IS RESULTING IN THE FLY ASH PRODUCED FROM LOSS OF CARBON DURING THE COMBUSTION PROCESS. THE MOST PART (99%) OF THE RADIOACTIVITY ESCAPES FROM THE STACKS OF CCP AND DISCHARGES INTO THE ATMOSPHERE AS GASES (VAPOUR PHASE) OR FINE PARTITION. FLY ASH IS ALSO PROPOSED TO BE USED AS SUBSTITUTE OF CEMENT IN CONCRETE (BUILDING MATERIAL). THE RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH PROPOSED WILL CONTRIBUTE TO THE EXTENSIVE KNOWLEDGE OF THE RADIOACTIVITY DISPERSED INTO THE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS HAZARDS EVALUATION TO MINIMIZE THE RISKS IN ANY CASE, IF ANY.

THE NUCLEAR PHYSICS DEPARTMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI IS WELL QUALIFIED WITH THE PRESENT STATE OF THE ART, IN MANY TOPICS OF THE PRESENT PROJECT (FOR SIX YEARS, AT LEAST) AS ON THE LOW LEVEL COUNTING, THE GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY, THE NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS AND THE THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSIMETRY.

THE PROJECT IS TO UNDERTAKEN THE FOLLOWING MEASUREMENTS, THEIR INTERPRETATION AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES. THE MEASUREMENTS WILL BE PERFORMED AT THE CCP'S OF PTOLEMAIS IN NORTH GREECE MAINLY, ALIVERI CLOSE TO ATHENS AND MEGALOPOLIS IN PELOPONESSE.

1. A)FLY ASH SAMPLING DISCHARGED OUT OT THE STACK OF CCP. DETERMINATION OF THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF SIZE FRACTIONATED PARTICLES AND THE SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF EACH RADIONUCLIDE CONTAINED. COLLECTION OF FLY ASH DUE TO PRECIPITATION AND MEASUREMENT OF ITS RADIOACTIVITY. GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY. NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS, DELAYED NEUTRON TECHNIQUES, X-RAY ANALYSIS

B)COMPUTATION OF FLY ASH CONCENTRATIONS AND RADIOACTIVITY IN AIR, IN CCP REGION, VS DISTANCE AND WIND BLOWN, USING AN APPROPRIATE COMPUTER PROGRAMME (VALLEY) FOR PLUME DISPERSION AND PRECIPITATION

2. AEROSOL SAMPLING IN CCP REGION. DETERMINATION OF THE RADIOACTIVITY AND COMPARISON WITH THE RADIOACTIVITY OF NORMAL AIR ATMOSPHERES. AIR SAMPLING, LOW BETA AND ALPHA COUNTING.

3. DETERMINATION OF RADON AND ITS DAUGHTER'S CONCENTRATIONS IN ATMOSPHERIC AIR IN CCP REGION, USING CONTINUOUS RADON WL MONITOR, PLASTIC TRACK DETECTORS, ETC.

4. COLLECTION OF RAINWATER IN CCP REGION AND DETERMINATION OF ITS RADIOACTIVITY. LOW BETA COUNTING, PLASTIC TRACK DETECTORS, NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS AND DELAYED NEUTRON TECHNIQUES.

5.COLLECTION OF SNOW, DURING THE WINTER, IN CCP REGION AND DETERMINATION OF ITS RADIOACTIVITY. LOW BETA COUNTING, PLASTIC TRACK DETECTORS.

6. STUDY OF THE RADIOACTIVITY IN SOIL AND VEGETATION IN CCP REGION. LOW LEVEL GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY, LOW LEVEL BETA COUNT.

7. DETERMINATION OF RA-226 AND RN-222 IN NATURAL WATERS IN CCP REGION. PLASTIC TRACK DETECTORS, LOW LEVEL ALPHA COUNTING.

8. IN SITU DOSE MEASUREMENTS :
A)IN OPEN COAL MINES
B)INSIDE CLOSED COAL MINES
C)FLY ASH DEPOSITION LOCALISATIES
-3"X3"NAI(TI) DETECTORS
-CONTINUOUS RADON WL MONITOR
-TLD DOSIMETERS.
9. TLD PERSONAL DOSIMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF THE POPULATION IN CCP REGIONS AND IN COAL MINES WORKERS. TLD DOSIMETERS.
10. RADON AND THORON EXHALATION RATES
A)IN COAL MINES
B)IN FLY ASH DEPOSITION LOCALISATIES. 3"X3"NAI(TI) DETECTORS, PLASTIC TRACK DETECTORS.
11.DETERMINATION OF RADON AND THORON IN AIR ATMOSPHERE IN RESIDENCES AT CCP REGIONS BY PLASTIC TRACK DETECTORS. 3"X3"NAI(TI) DETECTORS, PLASTIC TRACK DETECTORS, CONTINUOUS RADON WL MONITOR.
12.RADIATION EXPOSURE AND RADON MEASUREMENTS IN BUILT CONSTRUCTIONS MADE OF CONCRETE CONTAINING FLY ASH AS SUBSTITUTE FOR CEMENT. 3"X3"NAI(TI) DETECTORS, PORTABLE DOSE RATE METERS, TLD DOSIMETERS, PLASTIC TRACK DETECTORS, CONTINUOUS RADON WL MONITOR.

Funding Scheme

CSC - Cost-sharing contracts

Coordinator

ARISTOTLE UNIV. OF THESSALONIKI
Address
Nuclear Physics Department
54006 Thessaloniki
Greece

Participants (2)

MARTIN MARIETTA ENVIRONMENTAL CENTER
United States
Address

Baltimore
NUCLEAR RESEARCH CENTER "DEMOKRITOS"
Greece