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Content archived on 2024-04-15

ANALYSIS AND TEST OF WIND TURBINE GENERATORS WITH BROAD RANGE VARIABLE ROTOR SPEED.

Objective

THE PROGRAMME AIMS TO DEVELOP DESIGN ANALYTICAL TOOLS FOR BROAD RANGE VARIABLE SPEED (AVAS) WTGS TO BE USED IN DETERMINING THE REQUIREMENTS AND THE SPECIFICATIONS FOR A MEDIUM SIZE WTG FOLLOWING THIS CONCEPT.
The AVAS computer code, is now an effective and fully developed analytical tool for assessing broad range of variable speed wind turbine generators (WTG) and determining their operating parameters. AVAS has also given the WTG input configuration for simulating the dynamic behaviour of the system. Dynamic analysis was carried out using specific computer codes and received contributions from other ongoing programs, the GAMMA60 WTG and theAIT02 MEDIT WTG, which provided valuable analytical tools and field test data.

Among the major dynamic issues analysed, the decoupling of natural structural modes (rotor blades, tower, drive train, etc) has been found critical. Other issues addressed have included the influence of high rotational speed and its transient fatigue stresses due to fixed pitch operation and high yawing rates required for overload control, suitability of a full power direct current (DC) linked converter system as a variable speed generator and its effects on system dynamics, stability aspects of upwind configuration and thrust aspects of design driving loads.

These results confirm the feasibility of the concept and validate the chosen WTG configuration, which will then be kept as the starting basis for future phases.
THE AVAS CONCEPT APPEARS TO BE ONE OF THE MOST PROMISING APPROACHES FOR INCREASING WTG ENERGY CAPTURE. ITS APPLICATION, HOWEVER, IMPLIES A NUMBER OF TECHNICAL ISSUES INVOLVING ALL SYSTEM COMPONENTS. AERITALIA HAS IDENTIFIED YAW OVERLOAD CONTROL AS AN EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVE TO PITCH OVERLOAD CONTROL. THIS INNOVATIVE FEATURE REQUIRED PARTICULAR INVESTIGATION.
INITIALLY, THE INVESTIGATION HAS INVOLVED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPUTER CODE AVAS FOR OPTIMIZING THE CONFIGURATION OF AVAS WTGS. AERITALIA'S CONSTANT SPEED 32 M WTG AIT 02 MEDIT HAS BEEN KEPT AS THE DIMENSIONAL BASE-LINE IN DEFINING THE PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATIONS OF THE WTG, NAMED AIT 02 AVAS WHOSE PRINCIPAL FEATURES, OPERATING PARAMETERS AND CHARACTERISTIC CURVES HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED USING THE AVAS CODE.
SINCE THE START OF THE PROGRAMME, AERITALIA HAS BECOME INVOLVED IN OTHER RELATED PROGRAMMES, NAMELY THE TEST CAMPAIGN OF THE AIT 02 MEDIT PROTOTYPE AND THE VARIABLE SPEED GAMMA 60 WTG PROJECT. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND SYSTEM SIMULATION ACTIVITIES HAVE CONSEQUENTLY BEEN DELAYED IN ORDER TO ATTAIN FROM THESE OTHER PROGRAMMES FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL TOOLS.
AMONG THE MAJOR DYNAMIC ISSUES ANALYZED, THE DECOUPLING OF NATURAL STRUCTURAL MODES (ROTOR BLADES, TOWER, DRIVE TRAIN, ETC.) HAS BEEN FOUND CRITICAL. OTHER ISSUES ADDRESSED INCLUDE INFLUENCES OF HIGH ROTATIONAL SPEED AND ITS TRANSIENTS, FATIGUE STRESSES DUE TO FIXED PITCH OPERATION AND HIGH YAWING RATES REQUIRED FOR OVERLOAD CONTROL, SUITABILITY OF FULL-POWER, DC-LINKED CONVERTER SYSTEM AS VARIABLE SPEED GENERATOR AND ITS EFFECTS ON SYSTEM DYNAMICS, STABILITY ASPECTS OF UPWIND CONFIGURATION AND THRUST ASPECTS OF DESIGN-DRIVING LOADS.
THE RESULTS CONFIRM THE AVAS CONCEPT FEASIBILITY AND VALIDATE THE CHOSEN WTG CONFIGURATION.

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Coordinator

Alenia Un'Azienda Finmeccanica SpA
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Via Archimede 156
00197 Roma
Italy

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