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Characterization of urban air quality indoor/outdoor particulate matter chemical characteristics and souce-to-inhaled dose relationships (URBAN-AEROSOL)

Deliverables

Measurements of meteorological parameters and VOC's, indoor and outdoor, at the specific test sites in the greater area of Athens. Consultation with the end users, close collaboration with the ministry for the environment and public health regarding the implementation of the European Directives on benzene and other pollutants.
The Integrated microenvironmental tool includes full gas/aerosol processes, Gas phase photochemistry (SAPRC-97 mechanism, with explicit COC's). Alternative an extended CB-IV scheme can be used. The aerosol module includes 21 aerosol species, aerosol chemistry and inorganic condensation/evaporation - organic condensation. For the aerosol species a hybrid fixed/moving aerosol bin structure has been employed using in-organics (sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride, sodium, hydrogen ion), organics (primary and 8 secondary), water, elemental carbon, crustal material and dissolved gases (SO2, O3, H2 O2). The microenvironmental model is based on the MAPS1.2 aerosol model (NCAR, USA). The whole model is written in Fotran (g77). New subroutines are added to the first version of the model to deal explicitly with indoor-outdoor modelling. The comprehensive micro-environmental model is going to be applied to investigate the indoor/outdoor chemical and physical characteristics of PM and precursors gaseous species in different urban areas in Europe under various meteorological conditions and for different weekly and daily cycles.
Since scientifically based data on indoor air pollution are unsatisfactory or lacking, the project outcomes will provide complex information for end-users from the National Institute of Health to be implemented it in nation wide programs aimed at improvement of public health. Preparation of printed material for municipality decision makers to improve public awareness. Publishing articles in mass media (newspapers, journals), contributions to radio programs. Use of results as case studies in higher environmental education.
We found virtually no published data representative for the age distribution of the German house inventory as published by the Statistisches Bundesamt (Federal Statistical Office). Therefore (instead of measuring only 5 houses as promised in the proposal) we measured 22 houses built between 1697 and 2002 approaching as closely as possible the German house age distribution. Modern low energy houses were found to have a very small spread of ventilation rates while older houses exhibit a larger spread especially during windy weather.
The model is based on a mass balance taking into account ambient concentration and indoor sources and sinks put into equilibrium by air exchange. It considers various indoor sources (e.g. smoking, cooking emissions, CFU (biological colony forming units), gas burners), sinks proportional to indoor concentration (air cleaning devices and size-dependent particle deposition). - The indoor concentration probability distributions were calculated for a variety of scenarios using a Monte Carlo technique. The scenarios allow choosing between house type (new, old), climate (maritime, continental, Mediterranean, determining wind speed distribution), location (urban, rural), room size and personal ventilation habits. The input parameters necessary for running the model were assigned randomly following pre-defined appropriate statistics (mostly lognormal and Weibull for wind speed); - It was found that by far the highest indoor concentration occur in smoker households, where frequent air changes may help to somewhat reduce concentrations. Non-smoker households in new houses and rural areas have the lowest indoor concentrations.
Extensive measuring campaign in Prague including chemical characterization of size-segregated indoor/outdoor aerosols. - Measurements and characterization of particulate indoor/outdoor pollutants. Results applicable to future decisions on European Directives for air pollution relevant human exposure in urban environment; - Results of measurements in different apartments in Prague, Czech republic, Oslo, Norway, and Milan, Italy discussed with National Institute of Public Health (Czech End User) followed by recommendation about methodology of such measurements in different dwellings, and recommendation on methods of abatement of indoor aerosol exposition; - It is also planned common measurements or research projects.
Development of know-how and technology on indoor air quality monitoring and inhalation dosimetry assessment. Further improve the in-house capabilities on both analytical techniques and modelling capabilities with respect to indoor air quality and exposure assessment. Contribute to the improvement of the quality of workplace conditions and hygiene through the improvement of key air quality management issues inside industrial buildings.

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