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Strategies for temporary uses - potential for development of urban residual areas in european metropolises (URBAN CATALYSTS)


If one compares the initial position of the individual cities participating in the Urban Catalyst project, one can see that Vienna, in contrast to Berlin, for example, does not have �endless� areas of inner city wasteland. The large-scale free spaces in Vienna (Nordbahnhof, St. Marx, Erdberger Mais Gründe, Südbahnhof, Aspang, Donaucity) are already in their starting boxes for the race towards implementation, or at least that is the impression that is given. For this reason it must be stated that in Vienna �free space� first has to be created, or alternatively the vacant premises have to be made more accessible. Nevertheless or even as a result we have found numerous temporary activities in Vienna. With these experiences, it became highly important to mediate and inform people about the potential of temporary utilisation: Since then UC-Vienna propagated a mobile network node, which works like a planning tool that promotes potential networks and encourages the formation of networks through the accumulation of examples. Before it moves on, it leaves behind it a programme in the form of an urban catalyst. The subsequent procedure was subsumed in the working title �CITY CAT� and the approach was modified as follows: The whole city became test area, with the intention to develop a prototype, in order to: - find potential vacant premises - network those involved- provide impulses for new planning areas - demonstrate the potential of the temporary In the first place this prototype had to learn new things through activity and institutionalise individual steps. The institutionalisation of �CityCat� is a tool tailor-made for Vienna, which supports temporary utilisation and integrates the potential in the urban planning process. The following steps were undertaken: A: E-mail survey B: Perusal of adverts in the newspapers of the preceding year C: Interviews D: Making the research project public Further, it was a matter of showing how, by means of urban planning alternatives, cities can develop not on the basis of supply and demand, but rather can create a supply via the demand. The demand itself is called into question. The urban planner enquires, offers, encourages and supports. Symposium Tempo..rar As a tool we developed the programme of �CityCat� into a symposium which elaborates the potential of selected vacant buildings and makes recommendations for the concrete development of buildings, as well as for planning areas located in the neighbourhood. Focus was on sites with temporary availability and on temporary activities in general. The program of tempo..rar was to temporarily play on a site with the aim to hallucinate (imagine) a program for the site and its surroundings. Sites: APA-Hochhaus 8th floor, 19th district Former mail distribution centre, 15th district Restaurant E-Station at the south railway station, 10th district Fluc � shop premise for events, 2nd district The main problem we had to deal with while organising the symposium was to fix the original chosen sites; two of them we eventually had to substitute by other ones. The attempt, to gain temporary access was documented and created an empirical value about temporary utilisation in Vienna. Program examples of projects already realised in other European cities and in Vienna as well as ideas and inspirations gathered throughout the symposium were the basic ingredients. How can the development of programs be supported and what is understood as a program, on which principal a building or a whole area in a city can be developed? Questions were asked about the consequences of temporary activities for urban life and about connections between programming of usage, site and urban planning. The event acted as an active collector; the objective was to find out about seemingly distant ideas, concepts, initiatives, needs, experiences as well as formulating demands. The symposium brought together stakeholders and theorists from different fields. It viewed itself as a working circle, was open to the public and focused on discussion and networking. The contributions (impulse / discussion) will be published in the form of a small handbook on the subject of the temporary in the city, put together after the symposium. In the end of June, within the scope of a project week to the Architekturzentrum Wien we will present the results of our research and the documentation of our symposium.
Misenofutura strategy identifies the "Consortium" that promotes an alternative use of the public open space. It works as intermediary between demand and supply, stimulating on one hand the ownership searching for greater profits in the short term lease and, on the other, animating the territory trough the introduction of new needs and fields of action (qualification of the demand). Temporary uses represent for the Campi Flegrei area (Naples west metropolitan area) an alternative to less sustainable forms of permanent activities (illegal buildings and huts). The creation of a �land bank� for temporary uses is the premise to promote the development of different activities in the cultural, social, sport, tourist and facilities fields, able to constitute an event�s programme which could dilate the bathing season, in theory, to the whole year. The Consortium develops these actions advising, tutoring and providing start up to the entrepreneurs interested. It introduces temporary uses inside the enterprise organisation, promoting the internationalisation and operating technology transfer to the local operators. It also organises communication programs and territorial marketing of the �Miseno� package, proposing events and taking care to harmonise the entire different activities trough the edition of a �poster of the season�. �Misenofutura� operates as an engine in a context, which doesn�t arrive to self-promote, both from the supply�s point of view and the demand of new development opportunities. The alternatives of a sustainable development, implicit in a different exploitation of the land resource, can�t be caught just trough the publicity but these need a supporting action trying to fix temporary uses inside a quite low developed entrepreneur mentality. The Consortium works as a process accelerator, creating the premise of knowledge, efficacy and visibility for a social and economic development compatible with the high natural and historical values of the area.
Cooperative. A cooperative creates a legal framework for the organisation of a collectively owned business - a tool that can facilitate the transition of loose temporary user networks towards more permanent organisations Co-operatives are an established organisational framework for businesses. It could be particularly appropriate where a more formalised set up is either the consequence or precondition for the running of a business, combining the collective and shared dimension of many temporary user groups while introducing commercial mechanisms. Members: A minimum of 7 people is required to found a co-operative Basic capital: optional Setting up a co-operation: - Definition and official approval of main statutory framework - Election of members and documentation in writing - Official registration (obligatory) - The co-operation is obliged to keep records Management board administration by at least three members of the co-op (can be delegated to third parties) liability - the co-operation and its property (not its members) are liable - the statutory framework of the co-op can declare the following: 1. Subsidiary personal liability through members of co-op (limited) 2. Nachschusspflicht (limited) taxation - turnover and capital of the co-op will be taxed - members of co-op according to their shares will be taxed as personal property, the profit shares will be taxed as salary. Employment-Oriented Co-Operatives. Many small co-operatives set up other business areas that go beyond the purchase and renovation of their premises. Cultural, business-oriented and social activities are often flourishing and expand once a co-operative is established. Such effects could be characterised as an alternative, solidarity-oriented development of employment where the classical distinction of employer and employee is blurred - one of the reasons why co-operatives enjoy a new renaissance. Co-operatives and temporary useThe high unemployment figure in many European regions is the consequence of the structural change that characterises the transition from industrial to the service-oriented post-industrial economy. Shrinking employment produces the vacation of former employment sites that contributed significantly to today�s vast stock of disused urban areas in most European cities, which, in many cases, have become a breeding ground for many forms of temporary use. Co-operatives proof to be a flexible organisational frame that can absorb and consolidate such loose temporary user networks into lasting economies. If integrated into urban planning at an early stage, co-operatives could fulfil a useful pioneering role based on local needs and local initiative, and could become catalysts for further development. resume Temporary use has proved to be a rich source and catalyst for the setting up of businesses in the areas of culture, social work, service and low/mid-tech production. Co-operatives offer an appropriate framework for the transition from temporary use to settled business, which characterises many of these start-up processes, mainly for the following reasons: Co-operatives preserve social networks and non-monetary elements while creating a professional and market oriented organisational framework. Co-operatives can thus utilise the specific potentials inherent in many forms of temporary use and offer new perspectives for local and regional economies.
The development organisation �Kinetisch Noord� is a legal and executive body initiated to establish a workspace for artists, performers and starting entrepreneurs with a low or non-commercial profile in partnership with the municipal authorities. Kinetisch Noord has been set up in such a way that it is organisationally well equipped to deal with a limited budget and in a fairly horizontal and minimally hierarchical way with a large, dynamic arsenal of potential users. The main structuring element used is the division of users and spaces in clusters and thus unlocks the potential and individual freedom of the users in making an organisational and spatial backbone for its operations. Kinetisch Noord operates in the former 20.000 m2 large NDSM ship wharf on the northern IJ-Embankments in Amsterdam. It forms an example and test case of future development organisations and partnerships in the field of start-up cultural initiatives. Kinetisch Noord has three main aims: - Transforming the former NDSM wharf for low-profit art, culture and crafts production - Inciting a community that develops the NDSM wharf towards an experimental and multi-disciplinary cultural environment - Creating a cultural hotspot
Physical interventions play an important role for the actual reactivation of unused lands. In a majority of cases spaces are accessed and occupied through the deployment of self-handled appliances that can be installed in quick and facile ways. It has been observed that modification and recycling play a crucial role in the choice of means. The research project has composed a list of easy-to acquire building materials and instruments that cover the most common demands of temporary use. The focus lies on minimal means that are available in common hardware stores or at rentals and allow intermediate deployment on site. The list categorizes the tools into realms treating the two major requirements of construction codes: fire protection and circulation safeguarding.
The District Management Programme [German: Quartiersmanagement (QM)] has been set up in many European cities in order to provide direct and unbureaucratic service to deprived areas and bridge between local concerns and official planning strategies. In Berlin alone, district management has been set up in 17 city districts, funded through the programme �City districts with special development needs - the social city�. In its role as mediator district management can engage in processes of temporary use. Duration minimum of 3-5 years, dependent on funding situation (in Berlin funds are available until 2006) initiators In Germany the programme is run by the Ministries for Urban Development of the Länder (Ministerien für Stadtentwicklung der Länder), in Berlin it is run by the Senate. Staff Regular staff 3-5 per area, in addition to extra staff funded by temporary employment schemes. Budget 1. Fixed budgets for the 17 local offices in Berlin (personnel/ offices/ equipment: 150.000 EUR/annum/office) 2. Additional programme related funds: - basic fund (action fund): 15,000 EUR/ annum - exceptional extra funding (district fund) for 2001/2002: 500,000 EUR - additional match funding can be acquired which amounted to 18m EUR in 2000 in the city of Berlin (without employment schemes) Detailed description 1. Place: The QM areas are defined by the respective Country authority (in Germany: Länderrregierung). In Berlin, the definition is based on regularly updated statistical research in the areas of unemployment, income, social benefits, education and health conducted by the Berlin Senate in collaboration with the Technical University of Berlin (since 1997). The available funding has been dedicated to 17 areas in the city, two if which (�Boxhagener Platz� and �Wrangelkiez�) flank the area of the Urban Catalyst research projects. 2. Aims: QM is part of a strategic approach towards the systematic development of self-sustained and lasting personnel and material structures within a city district, utilising specific and already available resources in the area, while being part of a larger strategic framework for the entire city. The QM is based on the activation and the enabling (empowerment) of the resident population of the area, aided by the local economy, locally based institutions (schools, kindergartens, religious institutions, police etc) as well as by local initiatives, pressure groups and societies. The areas of action include local economy, family structures, youth, green areas, culture, neighbourhood etc. 3. Organisation: After an open tendering process, private firms are commissioned to set up QM offices in the local areas and implement a catalogue of measures. Applying firms often form consortia and joint ventures with other firms in order to meet the broad spectrum of required services with professional expertise. Sometimes, QM offices are directly set up by public municipal bodies, which, in any case, remain closely involved in the setting up and running of QM programmes. Specific QM measures have to be approved by the district authorities (Bezirksverwaltungen,BA) and the district assembly (Bezirksverordnetenversammlung,BVV ). is an Internet based system that applies the unique potential of web-based databases to cities by supporting and enabling temporary use of space. Templace has two main functions: A space leasing and management tool (Space Market) helps landlords and tenants involved in temporary use operate more effectively. A series of forums (Project Pool, ToolPool, and ThinkPool) allow all parties interested or involved in temporary use to share useful information resources. SpaceMarket is a tool for listing and finding space that helps owners and potential tenants negotiate leases on line. From any computer with an Internet connection, users can search the database for potential spaces, and make offers online, and owners can list their units, manage their leases, and contact tenants. Because SpaceMarket allows space to be managed more efficiently, The few remaining empty spaces in densely built up areas can be more effectively used. A tenant does not need to rent a space for longer than their actual use requires, so a single space can serve many different tenants during one month. This results in a net increase of available space through a phenomenon we call 'Increasing Temporal Density'. ProjecPool is a collection of exemplary temporary use projects to provide inspiration and practical insight. ToolPool is a forum for sharing techniques, structures and practical information useful in implementing temporary use projects. ThinkPool is a source of professional knowledge and ideas relating to temporary use. ContactPool is a dynamic list of people actively involved in temporary use. Users can list themselves, or find a professional to help them with their temporary use agenda. Using these forums, community members can also share their experience using a particular information resource to the above forums. This means that future users will benefit from the resource itself, and from the experience of the other community members who have used this resource. This feedback means that the information becomes more useable, and its range of application becomes more precisely defined. The template system will continue to operate after the end of the project. The tool has been built using open source software, so the running costs can be kept to a minimum. The basic maintenance will be done by the project partner Deadline, who developed the tool. Once the system becomes more frequently used by a larger group of temporary users, a model for financial exploitation will be developed. This could be based on either selling the service to local administrations, for local planning procedures, or charging for the use of certain functions. The main goal of template is to make temporary use more accessible by publishing wide-ranging information on the subject, allowing community members to share their experience, and to help actors involved in temporary use work more efficiently. In so doing template aims to become the main online centre for temporary use.
Often, the situation around an urban planning project is complex. Many stakeholders with different (conflicting) interests are involved and have to be brought together in order to come to an agreement. Stakeholder management may help to bridge the differences through building lasting and meaningful relations between the stakeholders. The Stakeholder Management Cycle is a useful tool to deal with all the different visions and interests. The primary aim of the stakeholder management cycle is to gain a thorough understanding of the views of the stakeholders. The next step is then to move on to collaborative action. Various different actors in urban planning can apply Stakeholder Management. Site owners, temporary users, local administrators, project developers or others can use the Stakeholder Management Cycle to implement strategies for urban development. The principle can also be applied outside the field of urban planning. The main benefit is that wide support is gathered during the creation of a plan. Rather than first making a plan and than trying to win support for it, the plan is created together with the other stakeholders. This requires an initial investment of time and energy, but this will be gained in efficiency and quality.
The local analysis of temporary uses in Helsinki did prove that the major impediments linked with the cultivation of temporary uses were the overheated local estate market in combination with the professional planning and space production practices and social construction that neglect temporary uses. In this kind of situation the goal of the research was to stimulate the involvement of t.u:s in the future urban planning and renewal processes via lobbying for temporary uses. A lobbying tool was developed for this purpose. The aim of the lobbying tool was to make in the long run the urban planning and space production practices more adaptive towards temporary uses and users. In the short run the aim was to increase the current and potential stakeholders' knowledge about potentials of temporary uses. The lobbying tool can be used in other European cities having similar estate market situation. The lobbying tool activities were started in the end of year 2001. The activities consisted of: -writing articles and publishing information of potentials of t.u:s (writings in professional magazines, information package & booklet in native language) -lecturing of advantages of t.u.:s (university guest lectures, public lectures, lectures for professionals) -contacting current and potential t.u. stakeholders (meeting + disseminating research results and other t.u. information) -cooperating with other universities (lecturing for students, contacting staff, suggesting t.u.:s as theme for student thesis and projects) -initiating new research activities (contacting financers, building up a research network, identifying topics) -gaining media publicity (radio & newspaper interviews) -supporting events linked with promotion of t.u.:s (seminars, discussion events, exhibitions) The real outcome of this work is to be seen in the future processes of urban change. So far the most promising results (=activities taken by the stakeholders the HUT UC project staff has been contacting) have been:-an initiative of the Helsinki City Planning Department to organize an open idea competition of the t.u. of the Helsinki harbour areas after the harbour activities move away (in 2008) and before the construction of the area is completed (in 2030) -an expression of interest of one of the Helsinki temporary tenants to organise a t.u. related seminar + an information point of t.u.:s -2 students masters thesis of t.u.:s (University of Art & Design) -two new research programs of t.u.:s (University of Oulu: T.u:s in declining cities in Northern Finland, and HUT together with the Institution of Social Research in St. Petersburg: T.u:s in the vast St.Petersburg brownfield zone)-integration of t.u.:s theme to masters level university studies (University of Oulu, University of Art and Design) To summarize: the lobbying tool has proved to be easy to implement and it seems to benefit various stakeholders in the society.
The Citizens Exhibition is a participative tool for urban planning. It combines qualitative interviews with temporary users and photography of the temporary users and the residual site. The idea of the exhibition is to create a space where citizens can present and discuss their personal views and where they can start a dialogue with other stakeholders about the temporary uses. The method consists of the following steps: a) Qualitative interviews with temporary users and other stakeholders about their biography, attitudes, motivations and conflicts. b) Photography of stakeholders and the test site. c) Integration of the photographs and relevant interview-excerpts into exhibits. d) Launch of the Citizens Exhibition at the local site.
Club Commission is an example of an umbrella organisation of fully established companies and partially formalised entrepreneurs, potentially temporary users, who are engaged in the same field. It serves both external representation and internal cooperation; Members cooperate on negotiating with authorities, mediating between property owners and lobbying with political decision makers, public relations, exchange of space and information and organise relevant thematic workshops and joint events. Many financially weaker temporary users benefit from graduated membership fees. Temporary users can exchange experiences and receive advice on their specific problems. At the same time they improve public relations due to collaboration including well-established partners.
The "Game of Chess" is a proposal of a method of re-using existing material (mostly construction material) on a peri-architectural level. For this existing structures, mostly illegal, abusive or temporary, are analysed (visual and photographical characterisation) and classified in simple typologies. In a second step with this material auto-constructions for new (mostly temporary and short-term) uses are enabled with an "in situ" attitude. The particular sense of the "Game of Chess" is to initiate a simple and economic way of new structures for new users in a very short time. The result of this study has been integrated in the development of a new prototype construction. The social value is to re-evaluate the potential of materials that are considered as "ugly" and without value and giving them just reusing them in a new way ("de-contextualisation") a new sense and new use. This can start as a process of reintegration of the people having built the (illegal) constructions and introduce them partly to other citizens or visitors.
The final outcome of the research project will be presented in form of a two-day-lasting conference. Divided into an internal and an external/public part it is meant to give strategic impulses to the urban discussion as well as to interested individuals. Hosted in a well known urban spot (Café Moscow) it will take place in the form of a well-promoted event. The public lectures and presentations will have different focuses, presented as platforms: models of action, tools and actors/agents. Guests will round up thematic close-ups and discussions will provide the opportunity to interact with the researchers. CPA will present the results through three main papers in order to explain the different steps of the research: content, methodological approach, results. A critical essay will be proposed by Iain Chambers, Professor at Istituto Universitario Orientale of Naples.
One of the major problems in the area of temporary use consists in the unwillingness of landlords to allow use on their lands on the background of liability codes. In this regard municipalities can take an important role to cover liabilities and responsibilities in relation to the landlord by acting as primary tenant. Giving subleases users on a non-profit base local authorities can play an active, powerful role in the control of temporary use. This mediation key position provides the power to select, enforce or avoid temporary use on specific lands and bewares of conflicts between stakeholders. Besides, municipalities can remain capable of acting even in times of financial scantiness, since no need for monetary investment occurs.
Privately run agencies can act as mediators between temporary users, city authorities, property owners and developers. An example is Spielfeld Agency, Berlin with its Boxion Project- Agentur Spielfeld. Aims: - development of use concepts of vacant spaces through culture-oriented programmes and events in Berlin - provision of studio and exhibition spaces to be used by artists and cultural enterprises - help and direct advice in the establishment of these enterprises and artist studios - upgrading and improvement of deprived areas in East Berlin Initiators: Carmen Reiz and Thomas Wagner in collaboration with the Quartiersmanagement (District Management) Boxhagener Platz. Organisation: Spielfeld is a privately run business with an executive, one partner (full time) and two to three freelance employees working in areas such as graphic design; Spielfeld works in close collaboration with a wide network of people and institutions linked to Berlin culture. Duration: Established in 2000. Initiation: Spielfeld was founded as a bridge between culture activists, city authorities, property owners and developers. The founders of Spielfeld take advantage of personal experience as artists and managers of clubs and events (Maria am Ostbahnhof, Casino, etc.). In collaboration with the Quartiersmanagment Boxhagener Platz the project Boxion was set up which is concerned with the reuse of vacant retail spaces by attracting start up businesses. The Boxion project has been set up according to the following steps: 1. Star-ups and start-up interests, which are oriented towards culture and the creative industries, are selected in an open tender process. All applicants have to present a concept and a viable business plan. 2. Together with the selected start-ups vacant retail areas in the area are selected and Spielfeld approaches the owners of the properties. If the owner agrees, Spielfeld acts as official tenant for the period of one year with the option of extending the contract. Through subsidised sub-contract arrangements the spaces are then leased to the start-ups as workshops, studios and gallery spaces. 3. Spielfeld co-ordinates an image campaign for all spaces under the label Boxion that includes festive events and guided tours 4. After the period of one year the sub-tenants have the option to take on the main contract at market rates The year-long project Boxion was successfully implemented in 2001 and 2002. Its financing was ensured by annual grants by the Quartiers management (district management). Boxion was well received by residents and property owners after the first year of running, which caused many owners to approach Spielfeld voluntarily in the second year. In order to reduce the initial investment costs for the subtenants, Boxion begun to involve only renovated spaces in the second year. Boxion 2002 includes 10 spaces used by fashion designers, a photographer�s gallery, a music agency, a graphic design studio, photographic studios, media as well as lighting design. In contrast to similar models that intend to activate urban districts with high proportion of vacant space, Boxion is primarily devoted to the step-by-step development of a secure longer-term local base and perspective for the specific target group of cultural activists. However, the establishment of new businesses of the cultural sector has positive effects on the city district as a whole. Costs: Boxion is funded by the programme Social City (Soziale Stadt) with an annual grant of 75,000 EUR.
Economic tool facilitating the re-conversion of the illegal activities, which occupy ''abusively'' public open space. The tool offers consultancy, tutoring and start up support to the entrepreneurs asking for a legal permission. The tentative is to disengage these activities from the seasonal tourist flows, giving an opportunity in terms of temporary occupation of public land negotiated with the local Administration.
WWW.architectural spots are a proposal for simple and easy realizable interventions with low-cost to improve the usability and the spatial quality of the area in Miseno (Bacoli/Campi Flegrei). It described proposals for interventions in all three areas: lake and city. W - What - specifies the transformation term W - Where - specifies the general space of intervention and individualizes it on the territory W - When - regards the necessity that emerges from the calendar of the programmed activities (see also MISENOFUTURO!) SPOT - indicates a singular, simple, light and mobile object.The proposed activities could turn on and off with very instant change. The proposals demonstrates interventions like: dog-lodges for the beach users, mobile pedestrian zones to enable easy access to the water passing parking lots, mobile libraries for seasonal or temporary request, temporary exhibition structures. The www-spots can be promoted by public organisations of by private initiatives in case of economic/commercial interest.
The competition for cultural entrepreneurs is an example of an active approach a city can take to influence the course of urban development using the drive of unconventional local partnerships. In the process of restructuring the vast redundant wharf areas at the northern riverbanks in Amsterdam, the local city administration has been searching the participation of a pioneer, which could help propelling the future development of the area. To get a scope of possible partners and their ideas, the city administration has announced a public competition, making an evicted wharf building available for the winning proposal. The brief for the competition asks to provide a vision, program and a business model to transform a large construction hall of the evicted wharf and the surrounding areas into a focal point for cultural activities. Through this approach, the redevelopment of this wharf can contribute to the urban restructuring process. Additional implementation of the competition tool is under study. Three goals have been met: 1. Finding alternative use for an otherwise abandoned area 2. Attracting cultural oriented entrepreneurs to create a focal point for future urban development 3. Securing property against unintended users (squatters, grey businesses)
The wide range of tools reveals that dealing with temporary uses means dealing with complex systems. The many different categories of tools clearly reveal that it needs different actors from different professional fields to be able to practice them. The examples shown prove that the question which tools are used and how effective they can possibly be depends on those who use them and on their motivation to take action. The following diagrams illustrate the way the tools work and sketch the interactions of potential players in the field of temporary uses such as the owner, investor agent, political and planning authorities, consumers and of course the temporary user himself. There are different types of modes of action that describe the respective role of the actor. The first diagram gives an overview over all categories, types of actions and tools. The other schemes focus on one actor and show possible options for models of actions from his perspective. Also shown are examples for models of action for owners, agents and temporary users.
All results and documentation of the research project will be made accessible in form of a book. The structure of the book will be divided in three parts: The first part presents the unplanned phenomena of temporary uses in European cities as self-organized program, which create public or collective spaces by little or no monetary investment. Documentation includes a row of cases that differ by type of use, size, time-pattern and type of initiators. The second part of the book will draw conclusions for the practice of urban design, urban planning and city management. The hypothesis that temporary uses have an important impact on city culture and city life is elaborated here, based on a series of �strategies of action� which formulate models of how an originally unplanned phenomena can be included in planning processes and of how they become part of a new type of urban planning strategies. A text drawing a résumé on the effect of the new approach of urban design will lead to a final conclusion in part three. CPA essays will be about the different steps followed during the research period, with special attention to temporary uses as instrument to identify fit planning strategies and to face the diffused abusiveness. The identification of a methodological approach according to an integrated Decision Support System, the elaboration of a model for action with specific tools, the construction of the Misenofutura scenario and the potentials of its implementations are the main innovative results investigated. The learned lessons can be transferred to other similar contexts, considering social, economic, spatial and scientific points of view.
The aim of the protest movement was to preserve the over 100 years old Makasiinit building - a base for many cultural public temporary uses - in the core of Helsinki, and to suggest alternative visions for the reuse of it. The initiators were a group of 20-30 young professionals. They managed to get at least 41000 citizens involved. The project did involve lot of voluntary work but very low costs. The protest activities consisted of: -media publicity (radio, TV, newspapers)-demonstrations (including Human Wall with 7000-8000 people) -alternative reuse scheme of the building -poster "Makasiinit- manifesti" -large number of debates and seminars -numerous contacts to politicians -protest list with 41000 signatures -video & photo exhibition of the temporary uses of the building The Makasiinit protest movement shows that also a small group of active and committed people can activate a large number of citizens to defend the public, beloved areas of the urban core.
The report concerning "legal instruments for temporary uses" is based on the investigation of the Austrian and Viennese legislation with emphasis on their relevance for temporary uses and interviews with the relevant stakeholders - these were officials of the city administration, temporary users and potential/future temporary users. Of specific relevance were the Viennese building Law (Wiener Baurecht), Rental Law and Insurance Law. The report will be transferred into a guidebook, a sort of manual, which should be a support for all relevant groups.
The platform for temporary uses is being set up to activate the potential of temporary uses within an urban development trajectory. In this process, it acts as a catalyst of change in the transformation from redevelopment terrains to dynamic urban areas. The platform seeks to interweave temporary program into the masterplan during the development process and strengthen it. Temporary and permanent programs being conceived in the masterplan process can complement each other in such a way. For the coordination, an agency or workgroup will be created. With a coordinated approach to temporary use, the energy from multiple initiatives can be channelled into the transformation process. Temporary uses can fulfil several aims: they can create a new character of an urban area by bringing in large variety of urban and public programs. Temporary forms of living, working, culture, education, leisure can be 'tested' and help to create a vivid character. This character is often lacking in the areas of new developments, where public activities usually lag behind. Temporary uses can also help to secure areas and sites from undesired occupation, i.e. after preparation and sanitation of the ground is finished. The platform creates a strategy towards the temporary uses.
The different research steps have been organized following an innovative methodological approach, deriving from the need to express a Decision Support System able to guide the scenario construction as regard to a multidimensional perspective. According to this aim and taking into account the evolution of the evaluative instruments, the definition of temporary uses implementing strategies has been articulated identifying potentials, models and tools starting from a bottom-up approach for recognising shared values and building a shared vision. The research has permitted to structure and to test a fit Decision Support System, conceived by phases, based on the possibility of continuous feed-backs and capable to combine different methodologies and to use soft and hard data. The main steps that characterizes the framework of Decision Support System are: - problem structuring and organisation of knowledge, by classical and new instruments (for example, the use of photography like a way to read the territory); - concept, problem solving and identification of the objectives; - institutional analysis, for the identification of actors; -potentials identification and analysis, by the combined application of Soda approach and Swot analysis; - elaboration of action strategies; - identification of models for actions, according to a good urban governance approach; - selection of key-tools (juridical/legal, social/economic and physical/environmental); - selection of relevant best practices, as examples to compare and to apply in a flexible way; - construction of scenario: Miseno Futura. This so-articulated scheme represents the structure to use the evaluation as essential part of the scenario planning according to a communicative perspective, where the central aspects are: - organisation of a functional discourse; - achievement of inclusionary arena of negotiation; - promotion of learning process; - increase institutional and social capitals. Through this approach it has been possible to face a practical challenge by developing an integrated conceptual model, by organising the evaluative process in the form of interactive dynamics; by permitting that stakeholders put forward claims concerns and interests; and by implementing an iterative discursive consensus-seeking process. In particular, the organisation of knowledge and the evaluation of different kinds of data has been structured by the interaction between the Soda approach and the Swot analysis in order to express the temporary uses potentials, integrating the point of view of community and the existing resources of territory. The application of Soda and cognitive maps represents the instrument used to identify the priority potentials list, essential for the scenario construction. In literature the Soda approach has been used to communicate the nature of a problem, representing the meaning of a concept by its relationship to other concepts and giving to the language a relevant significance. In our research, it has been applied to deduce the priority among a portfolio of potentials obtained by a participative approach, using the Soda and the cognitive mapping not only like a consultancy tool, but also as a decision tool able to support the decision-making process. For each one of the different three selected test sites (beach, lake and city) it has been possible to define a planning and management model and its reference tools, useful to implement a suitable approach, linked to the site-specific characteristics. It has been defined a basic framework, in which the basic criteria and the benchmarks for self-evaluation and improvement of integrated actions are identified. Starting from the specific characteristics of the sites, three different models have been elaborated according to the general concept of �good urban governance�. The three models (learning to do/capacity building; doing/enabling; regulating (governing/de-regulating/empowering) express the interaction between the urban governance and the decision making process for each site and define the relationships among the involved stakeholders. The elaboration of these models has been essential in order to identify the main phases and the key-tools and to express the rules to follow for the scenario construction. The vision of Miseno Futura is the last step of a process in which the existing potentials are transformed into the implementation of strategies, in order to realize the spatial integration among resources, stakeholders, environmental and cultural heritage, and to stimulate economic dynamics.
The case studies cover on the one hand the descriptions of individual areas in Vienna, where temporary uses took place and on the other hand the descriptions of carrier structures, which support temporary uses. They are partly attached to a certain area, but partly also related to the whole Viennese city; sometimes these two areas even mix themselves. The city-spatial context will be described, as well as the historical background of the buildings and their first uses or in the case of the carrier structures, the history of their formation and development. It will be tried to present the area or project in its own dimensions, but also comparing them among themselves and emphasising the differences. Beyond that, general questions are worked out, and a sort of typology of temporary uses will be elaborated. The different temporary uses are described in detail, their organisation - the involved institutions, the legal and economic frame conditions, the social network standing behind it - also with regard to a general applicability will be presented. Comparable projects, which are not part of own case studies, are additionally mentioned. The first question, which is posed, refers to the initiation and to the interests leading to temporary uses. The next question addresses resistances or other interests linked to them. Beyond that it can be assumed that also "third persons" profited by the temporary uses, which are not directly involved in the projects: therefore a further question addresses the consequences for the surrounding area. Here it becomes obvious, that this approach to establish uses can contribute to urban development / planning. The question of possible instruments for the promotion and embedding of temporary uses in super-ordinated development processes is therefore a further question. The elaboration of the institutionalisation processes, which occur within with the continuation of temporary uses more or less automatically, forms a super-ordinated text strategy. Altogether an “economics” of temporary uses, the social system that carries them and the types of exchanges will be elaborated. It gets clear that temporary uses, which are usually settled in the non-profit area establish “another” kind of economy, which goes beyond a simple cost benefit calculation and inaugurates complex systems of detouring efficiencies. Temporary uses seem to get closer to the ancient exchange systems: economics of gifts, which are generally settled on a symbolic level and are strongly linked to other social dimensions: temporary uses as “total social facts” (Marcel Mauss). A perspective, which is also, raised by the increasing approximation of urban planning and private commercial agencies.
Legal tool opening an economic space for temporary uses during low season periods of the year (October/March). The tool introduces opportunity for the titular of the permission to articulate its own activity, supporting the introduction of temporary activities inside business strategies, facing tax or rental price allowance.
One of the strongest tools in interactive urban planning is to create partnerships in execution. Working in partnerships not only has the advantage of sharing the costs of the implementation, it also makes sure that parties will continue to collectively look for problems when they arise, both during development and during implementation. The concept is different from the average Public Private Partnership in that it also involves other parties than just the owner and the contractor. Local administrations or other stakeholders that are involved in site management or development can initiate this tool. Ideally, all-important actors around a site are represented in the partnership. This means that also the users are represented in the joint decision making body. Because all relevant stakeholders are involved in the partnership, costs as well as knowledge and expertise are shared. Through the interaction new possibilities arise for creative solutions for conflicts in interest.
The Democratic Dialogue is a way to facilitate a process of co-creation with large numbers of stakeholders. The main purpose is to bridge different views and interests by creating a shared view of the problem. The idea is to create practical ideas and solutions by using the (tacit) knowledge of those people who deal with the problem on a daily basis. The Democratic Dialogue is especially applicable when a complex problem is at hand, i.e. when a variety of stakeholders are involved who have conflicting interests. This can be the case in urban planning, but also in other policy fields. The benefits of the Democratic Dialogue lie in the multi-stakeholder approach. Plans are created by a large group of stakeholders, resulting in higher quality and better problem solving. There will be more support for solutions and less opposition when plans are presented. The Democratic Dialogue can be organised by public as well as private entities. However, public support and commitment are crucial for the success of the process. Participation should be open to all stakeholders who want to participate.
Point of departure In the realm of temporary uses the different stakeholders are not used to collaborating. In many cases they have sceptical attitudes towards each other and don't know anything about the tactics, motivations and aims of the other actors. The relationship between temporary users and property owner/ landlord is often not or just temporarily formalised by contracts. The real circumstances reveal that property owner and users easily get into conflicts: The users themselves try to unfold their activities as fast as possible to exploit the advantages of the discovered niche while the owner intends to limit the time gap within the economic development cycle caused by residual areas. The municipality usually plays a more passive role mainly surveying legal rules and planning procedures. aim Individual workshops with different target - groups are a convincing means to improve the understanding among the actors and to generate the basis for win-win situations in the field of temporary use. In contrast to tools such as the democratic dialogue or the stakeholder management workshops with target-groups addressing only one type of actor. Of course all tools can be applied in combination. The workshop tool aims at making the participants sensitive for the coordinates of urban transformation processes with temporary users. Moreover another objective is to illustrate the motivations and visions of the other players, to elaborate advantages for own strategies and tackle questions of impediments and conflicts. strategy A professional organisation of the workshop is inevitable to address a wide range of representatives of one actor group. The workshops framework should be composed by several statements of experts focussing on background information as well as on innovative strategies. The most effective way to enter in a fruitful debate is to engage avant-garde experts who also represent the target-group. Selected statements of representatives of other players will be necessary for feedbacks and to keep in touch with the ground. There's no doubt that statements hold dangers of one-way communication. The workshop should be completed by small-moderated working groups tackling specific items with not more than 15 participants. example In the Berlin project the workshop took place with property owners and investors. On the one hand the meeting served to discuss specific problems and conflicts, on the other hand the debate focussed on strategies and models for action, which encourage landowners to play a more active role during alternative development processes.
The Fund for Breeding Places (Broedplaatsenfonds) aims at accomplishing the realisation of small-scale infrastructure for (mainly) non-commercial cultural entrepreneurs - among which mainly (semi) professional artists - and to achieve conditions for a sustainable form of this infrastructure in the city. The Fund focuses on two target groups: 1 - individually operating artists, and, 2 - groups of cultural entrepreneurs in (housing/) working-premises (among which artists, small craftwork companies, services and technicians), that aim at on forming a society to induce synergy and cross-fertilisation, participating in a sub-culture, with its own economy, not directly devoted to commercial success. For these target groups, it wants to accomplish spaces with affordable rent levels (28 - 46 euro / m2 / year). Its goals are: 1. Realisation of affordable small-scale infrastructure for artists and cultural entrepreneurs 2. Achieving conditions for a sustainable form of this infrastructure in Amsterdam 3. Initiating policy for distributing and maintaining these spaces
Spatial tool introducing a sustainable way to replace permanent illegal buildings and huts with temporary structures. The tool introduces a time (from 1 to 4 years) to recede from the abuse replacing gradually permanent activities with temporary ones.