The involvement of stakeholders to develop and implement tools for sustainable households in the city of tomorrow (ToolSust)
The ToolSust project has been developed along two dimensions. First and foremost we have tried to develop tools for sustainable development in European cities related to consumption. Secondly we have carried out scientific research in the five actual cities to develop these tools and to evaluate and improve them. These results have scientific and political values beyond the development of tools. Individual and household behaviour never take place in a vacuum. We have therefore also focused on political measures on national- and local level and the framework created by local political authorities and businesses. ToolSust has concentrated on the following important consumer activities: -Use of energy within households; -Recycling of glass, paper, textiles, toxic waste and organic waste; -Shopping behaviour of organic and local food and eco-labelled products; -Transport related to shopping behaviour. The ToolSust project is developed in four phases. -In the first step we have drawn a qualitative and quantitative picture of the environmental situation in our five cities, related to consumption. We combined qualitative interviews with local stakeholders with a quantitative consumer survey (Methietal. 2002); -In the second step we followed up with a quantitative household metabolic approach to the environmental impact of consumption, focusing on both direct and indirect energy use in various types of households in the five cities (Kok, Falkena and Moll, 2003); -In the third step we concentrated on possibilities for short-tern changes in three of our cities; linking the changing potentials to consumer information (Fredrikstad), quality of life (Padua) and participation (Guildford) (Støetal. 2003); -In the last step we focus on potentials for long-term changes within a back-casting approach. Stakeholders in all the five cities are involved in drawing positive images of the future (Kanyama et al. 2003) The actual cities are: -Fredrikstad, situated in the southeastern part of Norway, relatively closed to the Swedish border. The city has close to 70 000 inhabitants and the size of the community is 290 km2. The average income is 25 000 Euro per year, unemployment 3,3% and the average temperature 6,4°C; -Groningen situated in the northern part of The Netherlands, close to the German border. The city has 175 000 inhabitants and size of the community is 40 km2. Average income is 10 000 Euro, unemployment 17,7% and the average temperature 9°C; -Padua, situated in the northern part of Italy and has 210 000 inhabitants and 93 km2. The average temperature is 13°C, and the city has both the driest and wettest month during a year. Average income is 21.500 Euro and unemployment rate is 4,4%; -Guildford, a rich city, southeast of London with 130 000 inhabitants and 360 km2. The average income is 37 500 euro, the unemployment is 1% and average temperature is 9,5°C; -Södermalm, a part of Stockholm in Sweden, with a very high density: 100 000 inhabitants and 7,5 km2. The average income (25 000 euro), un-employment (2,5%) and temperature (6,6°C) is very close to Fredrikstad.