As expected the ALARA methodology has been tested in, and applied to, several areas where specific methodological problems had to be solved. These areas are :
ALARA and decommissioning
ALARA and internal exposure
ALARA and Work Management
ALARA courses and workshops.
A new generation of ALARA tools
In order to facilitate an even more wide dissemination of the ALARA culture and practice, it appeared necessary to develop specific tools, such as feed back data bases or decision aiding software.
Ionising Radiation incident Database (IRID)
A key element in preventing accidents and being able to mitigate their consequences is the ability to learn rapidly from previous mistakes. In most countries there is no system to deal with that problem in the non nuclear sector, despite with widespread use of ionising radiation in the industry. Therefore, during this contract, NRPB has developed the structure and operational methods of an accident data base: IRID. The database has been designed to cover radiological accidents in industry, medical research and teaching. It operates on a personal computer using dBase V software.
A serious problem pointed out through the analysis of ALARA and decommissioning was the lack of data for various important radiological protection factors. Therefore during this contract SCK.CEN has developed the structure of a specific database including doses, costs and wastes for dismantling operations. This database has been developed using MS-ACCESS (version 2). Fields were first determined and data input, based on the BR3 dismantling operations. The possibility of importing data from other databases has then been investigated. With the help of GRS, the selection and appending of data from the CEC DB-COST database, was carried out readily.
Earlier in the project it was identified that there were a need for the development of user friendly software that would facilitate non specialists using decision aiding techniques. The development of this software, called OPTI-RP, has been performed by CEPN, in collaboration with NRPB, during that step of the project. It has been developed using Access(r) under Windows(r). The software is available in French and English languages. A French users guide is to be provided by the end of November 1996. Three decisions aiding techniques are included in the software: Cost-Benefit Analysis, Differential Cost-Benefit Analysis and Reasonable Cost Analysis.
INTEGRATION OF ALARA AT THE DESIGN AND OPERATION STAGES
A STUDY SHOULD BE DEVELOPED IN ORDER TO PROPOSE A GENERIC GUIDE TO HELP IN DEFINING ALARA DESIGN OBJECTIVES, CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES. A SPECIFIC APPLICATION TO THE DESIGN OF THE NEXT GENERATION OF PWR'S IS ENVISAGED. THIS WILL BE COMPLETED BY AN ANALYSIS OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASE IN ORDER TO DRAW CONCLUSIONS IN OPTIMISING THE PROVISION OF PLANT TO MITIGATE THE CONSEQUENCES OF ACCIDENTS.
INTEGRATION OF ALARA AT THE DECOMMISSIONING STAGE
THE OBJECTIVE WILL BE TO DEVELOP A GENERIC ALARA PROGRAMME FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF INSTALLATIONS. THIS WILL BE MAINLY PERFORMED BY USING THE EXPERIENCE OF THE BR3 PWR DECOMMISSIONING PROGRAMME.
DEVELOPMENT OF TOOLS, METHODOLOGIES AND DATABASE
METHODOLOGIES TO BE DEVELOPED CONCERN :
- THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AVERSION CONCEPTS, THE USE OF "RETURN RATE" AS WELL AS TIME IN GENERAL IN THE VALUATION OF THE MAN SIEVERT;
- THE DERIVATION OF DOSE AND RISK CONSTRAINTS, AS DEFINED BY ICRP 60, AND THEIR INTEGRATION INTO RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMME;
- THE DECISION PROCESS FOR APPLYING VARIOUS OPTIMISATION TECHNIQUES TO PROBLEM INVOLVING PROBALISTIC EXPOSURE AND UNCERTAINTY.
THE SOFTWARE PACKAGE FOR PERFORMING SIMPLE AND EXTENDED COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS WILL BE COMPLETED IN ORDER TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE NEW FRAMEWORK RECOMMENDED BY ICRP 60. APPROPRIATE DATABASE TO RECORD FAILURES AND ACCIDENTS AS WELL AS NUMERICALLY BASED TASK CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR USE IN RADIATION DOSE TRACKING ON PWRs, WILL BE FURTHER DEVELOPED.
Funding SchemeCSC - Cost-sharing contracts
OX11 0RQ Didcot,harwell,chilton