The notion of "management of ethno-cultural diversity"as theory and practices to prevent and solve conflicts and to improve democracy and socio-political participation, needs a critical revision through the analysis of international scientific literature (sociology, political science, education) and a comparative approach, considering the experiences done in different countries. From the practical point of view, managing the ethno-cultural difference can mean simply the adaptation of the public and private institutions and organizations to a more and more diversified public. Institutions should get to know the cultural singularities of the different groups and, thanks to this knowledge, adapt themselves to differences existing in the society. Still, even the simplest practices need the background of a new vision of social relations, boundaries, citizenship, nation, national culture, national identity, migration, education.
The need for the re-conceptualization of the political concepts of citizenship, nation, majority, equality, unity, in the perspective of ethno-cultural diversity is urgent as a basis for possible models of pluralist democracies. The re-conceptualisation is also necessary to propose good practices in the public and private institutions and services. A comparative approach among different countries facing cultural diversity is euristic.
Comparing spontaneous practices and social dynamics like hybridization processes, formation of diaporas with the organized policies is useful as well to produce a more general vision of a plural society.