Objective of the proposed research training area is to substantiate the resistance improving characteristics of specific minor components isolated from dairy. Resistance is regarded as the physiological capability to defend oneself against inappropriate exogenous components that may effectuate defense reactions of the organism (individual). From a feasibility study it was concluded that bovine milk contains several resistance improving minor components like growth factors, immunoglobulins, polyamines and nucleotides. If isolated from the main sources and added to food in a concentrated way minor components may contribute to resistance in a significant way. However, effectiveness of these components as a food ingredient has never been proven scientifically. Underlying research training is aimed at substantiating the resistance improving properties and the toxicological issues of specific minor components by performing in vitro, ex vivo and animal research.