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European Project for Toll Effects and Pricing Strategies

Exploitable results

If we consider the 4 main issues of EUROTOLL, the results and the conclusions are the following. Strategies for demand management in EUROTOLL case studies The main result is that the ERU concept seems not adapted if it is considered alone. It has been shown that in order to facilitate the switching of road users out of congested situations, the more convenient alternatives of incentives should be given. This is why the concept of Targeted Road Users was developed. In order to free space in congested situations, a TDM set of measures is defined which may include tolling, and this TDM strategy is targeted towards a set of road users who in principle have the possibility to modify their behaviour (route, time schedule, etc.). Demand reactions with regard to TDM strategies. To get a general conclusion about road user behaviour, the results are the following: - If allowed by the pricing scheme, the most favoured reaction patterns are trip-retiming and route choice. - Regarding re-timing of trips, if the scheme contains a time-related component, the patterns normally is successful (see e. g. Stuttgart, A1, A10/A11 case studies): of course the success depends on the possibilities of shifting, i.e. more or less short peak-pricing periods. Similar effects may result from building trip chains. - Deeply linked to route choice, the impact of TDM on the capacity usage of road infrastructure is quite successful, too. Only one exception has to be noticed: In case of limitation to one single road category, there may be worsening effects initiated through by-passing. - Concerning modal shift, TDM schemes partially show less impacts than mentioned before. Most intensive reactions can be expected from corridor and network pricing in passenger transport. The amount of this is especially influenced by the share of modes at the starting point (see results of Stuttgart and Leicester case studies). - In general, freight transport is expected to react with more rigidity to TDM strategies. - Due to the EUROTOLL focus on short-term, our case studies have not studied or detected changes of destination. - The importance of one reaction patterns in comparison to others varies in time. In the medium and long run other user reactions will become more effective than if they are restricted to a short period. Integration of information and pricing and policy issues Strategies to integrate pricing measures and transport information are capable to reinforce the positive effects of both. Integration strategies should not be limited to providing pricing information via modern information technologies (telematics). Integration strategies rather aim at an increasing awareness of pricing measures and improvements concerning alternatives. In this sense integration presupposes the integration of transport mode overlapping information. Policy issues The link between EUROTOLL and the pricing policy orientation in Europe (White Paper), was made. The main issue was to understand, with respect to the work carried out in case studies, how road pricing could be a way towards the implementation of Social Marginal Cost Principle (SMCP), and if a possible convergence between financing and pricing logic (SMCP) exists. The current European pricing system seems to be a good basis to take into account the overall logic recommended by the EC White Paper. This system can lead to a true transformation in the long run, towards a sustainable development of car use. For this, pricing road use on existing “free” roads, for infrastructure development and for congestion management must be distinguished. This is why, to cover this scope of possibilities, a “trinomial road pricing” has been proposed, combining simultaneously various methods of pricing in order to take into account the various types of costs: -a fixed component in the form of national or wide area vignette, -a component varying with the fuel consumption, thanks to the fuel taxes. -a component varying with the type of network used, and which could take the form, according to cases, of tolls, possibly modulated, or of local vignettes at the beginning.