Identification and case study of variables and parameters in the human domain in evaluating fire risk on board ships; PHOENIX
The results of the project are threefold: Collection of Valuable Statistics During the first 2 months of the PHOENIX project, a model database was built where information related to the outbreak of fire was incorporated. In order to analyse all possible relations between the fire accident variables several databases from different sources were collected: - The database generated described above. - The reports and data connected to fire accidents on board during the 6-year period (from 1990 to 1996) - The flag statistics from Lloyd's during the period under study. - The criteria used in other industries. Then, with all data collection completed, the relationship and different combinations were aggregated to the first database. Finally, a data analysis was developed, making it possible to establish some conclusions. Validation of the Fire Simulation Model All the aspects of safety on board of ships, the materials, the fire division bulkheads, the alarms plants, the detection plants, the fixed and portable extinguishing equipment and all the escape means were analysed. All operations and important aspects of quantification of risk were considered and compiled in the program: "HCFIRE - Fire risk Spreadsheet". This software allows the user to detect and identify deviations in the fulfilment of the items and to apply preventive policies. Validation and refinement of the computerized check-list. Two computer programs were created in the form of checklists. The first one offers information about prevention and control, and the second one offers information about the major causes of fire in general, negative influences and fighting efficiency. The checklists developed were adapted to computer user's convenience, with similar structures and configurations. Once the program has been successfully installed on the PC and the application is running, the main window is displayed, showing the name of the application ("General Fire Protection"). The following window introduces us directly into the programme itself and contains all available functions in the form of pull-down menu entries. The pull-down menu "Check" contains the following options: Ships database, Computerized Items Inspection, Manual Items Inspection, Inspection Reports, Reindex Databases. The pull-down menu "List" contains the following commands: Chapters Entry, Sections Entry, Items Entry, Items Reference, S.O.L.A.S Entry, Reindex Databases. - The majority of accidents occurred in vessels over 15 years old and complying with the 1981 SOLAS amendments. They are also in the high risk category - The most common starting place was the engine room. - The majority of the accidents started when the vessel was at sea and loaded. - The worst GRT range for fire casualties is between 10,001 and 50,000. - The vessels suffering the greatest number of fires were General Cargo. - The consequences of the accidents in the majority of the cases were small. - Vessels to which the most recent amendments to SOLAS Chapter II-2 apply are less likely to have a fire on board in contrast to those that apply the 1981 amendments. - Most of the accidents are caused by negligence. Where the cause is unknown, it may also be derived that the main reason be negligence. This situation reflects the great need for appropriate education and training. - As it might be expected, the risk of accidents is higher when the vessel is under way. In this situation, the majority of fires started in the engine room. - Basic procedures in the identification of fire risk are: a) Reduction of combustible material b) Use thermal structural divisions into different sections of the ship c) Select high and low risk areas d) New organization and training schemes for personnel.