The Institute for Remote Sensing Application (IRSA), part of the Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), recently published its annual report for 1994. In 1994 research carried out by IRSA addressed themes set out in the JRC's specific programme including the monitoring of land resources and land use, coastal monitoring, development of advanced techniques for the analysis and interpretation of remotely sensed data, global change and the Centre for Earth Observation (CEO). IRSA's programme of exploratory research continued to address a diverse range of themes including ray-tracing experiments, use of virtual reality technology for image analysis and fundamental work on instrumentation calibration. Exploratory research, such as the development and implementation of a comprehensive ray-tracing model, which successfully describes the transfer of radiation in complex scenes, will be used in future Institute research programmes. The Institute continued to support a number of international activities, providing input to the work of the international committee for Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and to a number of International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) core projects.