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Specific research and technological development programme (EEC) in the field of human capital and mobility, 1990-1994

Part of the third framework programme for Community activities in the field of research and technological development (1990 to 1994) under subactivity III.6.: "Human capital and mobility", this programme builds on and extends the work carried out in the SCIENCE programme (1988-1992), the SPES programme (1989-1992) and the large-scale facilities programme (1989-1992). Its training activities complement those carried out under other specific Community programmes such as COMETT and EUROTECNET.

The programme focuses on two main aims, the training and mobility of staff and the formation of networks. By virtue of its horizontal nature, all scientific and technological sectors are covered, including the economic and management sciences.

The various programme activities are especially aimed at increasing the mobility of Community scientists, in particular young researchers at post-doctoral level, by enabling them, through traineeships, to develop a research activity in a team or laboratory of recognized quality situated in a Member State other than their country of origin. Support may also be granted to young researchers at doctoral level, especially in fields where there is a lack of post-doctoral researchers, as well as to established researchers who need specific training in a field other than their own or in order to apply their scientific knowledge in new areas. Experienced researchers may also benefit from support to carry out R&D projects (as "visiting professors" responsible for research) in centres located in disadvantaged regions of the Community so as to train a number of young scientists locally.

Within the above context, the programme includes actions to encourage access to large- scale and/or technical facilities in the Community, thus increasing the advanced training opportunities offered to European researchers by enabling them to become familiar with such facilities in the execution of research projects.

The creation of research networks under the programme is of great importance for the achievement of the objectives of the Community's RTD policy in consolidating and complementing the structuring effects of thematic programmes. As a general rule, these will consist of five public and/or private research laboratories and/or teams, established in at least three Community countries and working jointly on one or more R&D projects. The association of recognized high-quality laboratories and promising laboratories situated in the less-favoured regions of the Community is particularly sought.
To help increase the quantity and quality of human resources available for research and technological development which will be needed by the Member States in the coming years and to make optimum use of their scientific and technical infrastructure, thus assisting the creation of a genuinely European scientific and technical community.
Four areas:

- The development of a Community system of research training fellowships:
Selection of participants on the basis of a two-level procedure aimed at matching host organizations with applicant researchers:
. Individual recipients of training fellowships:
Community scientists, in particular young researchers at doctoral or post-doctoral level, selected to participate for a period of six months to two years in advanced research projects;
. Laboratories or research teams receiving fellowship recipients:
Three categories of organizations - individual research teams or laboratories, research teams or laboratories grouped to form intra-European networks, institutions offering large-scale facilities - selected to receive, separately or jointly (in the case of a network), the recipients of training fellowships;

- Research networks for scientific and technical cooperation:
Financial support to research teams or laboratories grouped to form intra-European networks for the purpose of a scientific and technical theme or a scientific and technical project.

- Access to large-scale facilities:
Financial support to organizations equipped with large-scale facilities to cover the costs arising from making these facilities available to guest researchers.

- Euroconferences:
Financial support to organizations, scientific associations or learned societies organizing a series of high-level meetings for debating the latest work undertaken in advanced scientific or technical areas.
The Commission is responsible for the implementation of the programme, assisted by a committee composed of the representatives of the Member States and chaired by a representative of the Commission.

The programme comprises training actions and accompanying measures.

Participants will be selected on the basis of calls for proposals published in the Official Journal of the European Communities. Individual recipients of research training fellowships must be nationals of the Community Member States or natural persons resident in the European Community. Organizations must be based within the framework of legal entities established in the Community, such as research centres, academic institutions or scientific foundations having their own research activities, or industrial firms. Exceptionally, for the purposes of this programme, the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), based in Geneva but with the major part of its installations on Community territory, may be a participant in the contracts.

Fellowships cover two types of expenses: those related to the researchers themselves and those related to the administration of the fellowships. Administration costs include those of the Commission and those of the host organizations, including a contribution to the research expenses of the fellow in specific cases, where appropriately justified. Expenditures related to researchers is intended to cover subsistence and mobility-related expenses, and special expenses for publication of the findings.

For research teams or laboratories participating in the intra-European networks action, the various forms in which support is given must be the subject of a contract. The Community's contribution covers expenses incurred in engaging researchers outside the network needed to complete the research project, incidental costs resulting from international cooperation, a contribution to research expenditure, and administrative costs. The Community's contribution represents, in general, 100% of the marginal costs of the action (including the full research fellowship costs).

For organizations participating in the large-scale facilities action, the extent of Community support is based on the quality and unique features of the facility, interest shown by potential users, cost/benefit ratio of Community support, and value for the Community in terms of importance of the facility in respect of the Community's overall scientific and technical potential.

For organizations participating in the Euroconferences action, the Community's financial support covers in particular the participation expenses of young scientists attending the conferences, with priority being given to those from less-favoured regions.

The accompanying measures consist, in particular, of putting to use the resources permitting good technical execution, management and evaluation of the programme and adequate dissemination and accessibility of the results of the training actions and coordination, and increasing awareness of the participants in the programme.

The Joint Research Centre (JRC) will contribute through its own "Human capital and mobility" programme to the implementation of the activities of the present programme.

The Commission is authorized to negotiate international agreements with third countries which are members of COST, in particular the member countries of EFTA and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, with a view to associating them with all or part of the programme. Bodies and undertakings established in European third countries may be admitted to an action undertaken within the programme. No contracting body based outside the Community and participating in an action undertaken within the programme may benefit from the Community financing of the programme. Such a body shall contribute to the general administrative costs.

The Community funds estimated as necessary for the execution of the programme amount to ECU 562 million, including an amount equivalent to 1% of the budget earmarked as the contribution from the programme to the centralized action for the dissemination and exploitation of results.

The dissemination of the results of the programme will be carried out within the programme itself as well as through the centralized action.

In the second year of implementation the Commission shall review the programme and send a report to the European Parliament and the Council. At the end of the programme an evaluation of the results achieved shall be conducted by a group of independent experts and submitted, together with the Commission's comments, to these same bodies.