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A multiple space and time scale approach for the quantification of deep saline formations for CO2 storage

Final Report Summary - MUSTANG (A multiple space and time scale approach for the quantification of deep saline formations for CO2 storage)

Executive Summary:
MUSTANG has been a five-year, large-scale integrating project spanning from June 2009 to June 2014 (www.co2mustang.eu). The consortium comprises 19 institutions as project partners. Additionally, over twenty organizations, including overseas CO2 experts, end-user industries and regulatory organizations are linked to the project via the Scientific, Industrial and Regulatory Advisory Board (SIRAB). The overall objective of the project has been to develop a comprehensive set of methodologies and tools for the assessment and characterization of deep saline aquifers for CO2 geological storage, and for providing measures to determine the related performance and risks. The project can be roughly divided into four closely interlinked components as presented below.

1) The primarily field component, where (i) data from a number of example test sites with different geographic and geological settings has been analyzed to get an overview of possible conditions and circumstances that can occur in CO2 geological storage, and based on these data 3D geological models of the sites have been constructed and parameter values to be used in dynamic simulation models been determined. (ii) improved field characterization techniques are being developed, in particular related to geophysical monitoring and tracer techniques to monitor the CO2 plume and well instrumentation and (iii) full-scale CO2 injection field experiments are carried out. The main injection experiment will take place in Heletz, Israel, with deep injection of supercritical CO2 at a depth of 1600m. The objective of this experiment is to get an improved understanding of in-situ values of two important trapping mechanisms, the residual and dissolution trapping, to better understand the role of heterogeneity in this and to provide datasets for model and method validation. Additionally, a shallow CO2 injection has been carried out at the Maquelone site, to cross-validate MMV technologies at shallow depth and to gain understanding of the transport and monitoring of gaseous CO2.

2) The laboratory experiments and natural analogues component, has had an objective to provide information for modeling, concerning parameter upscaling, mass transfer mechanisms, and parameterization of the thermo-hydro-mechanical and chemical processes related to migration of CO2. In particular, it has been of interest to observe the changes of rocks when in contact with CO2. The focus is on (i) hydro-chemical alteration of cap-rocks due to CO2; (ii) Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical parameterization of rock dissolution due to injection; (iii) determination of parameters for numerical models; (iv) analysis of seal integrity, based on CO2 analogues.

3) The modeling component, where (i) processes relevant to CO2 spreading and trapping are formulated and expressed in the form of mathematical models; (ii) improved numerical models are being developed, by improving existing numerical tools and by developing new ones for certain processes, where the previous models are not so effective; and (iii) CO2 injection and storage in the test sites is being modeled, to gain a broad understanding of the relevant conditions and to provide procedures and approaches to quantify sites for CO2 injection; and (iv) methods and framework for treating the multiple space and time scales of CO2 geological storage modeling is developed.

4) Performance assessment methodology component, where (i) procedure and methodology for CO2
geological storage related risk assessment and (ii) web-based Decision Support System are being developed. In addition recommendations for storage site quantification procedure and methods are given.

Project Context and Objectives:
MUSTANG is a five-year, large-scale integrating project spanning from June 2009 to June 2014 (www.co2mustang.eu). The consortium comprises 19 institutions as project partners. Additionally, over twenty organizations, including overseas CO2 experts, end-user industries and regulatory organizations are linked to the project via the Scientific, Industrial and Regulatory Advisory Board (SIRAB). The overall objective of the project has been to develop a comprehensive set of methodologies and tools for the assessment and characterization of deep saline aquifers for CO2 geological storage, and for providing measures to determine the related performance and risks.

In alignment with the FP7 call for proposals on CO2 storage: Development of a suitable methodology for the qualification of deep saline aquifers for CO2 storage, the overall objectives of MUSTANG were defined as follows:

• Address the safety of geological CO2 storage at all timescales and the liability issues.
• Give full confidence in geological CO2 storage and form the basis for the legal and regulatory requirements allowing the deployment of large scale near zero emission power generation technology using underground CO2 storage.
• Couple R&D and demonstration aspects.
• Develop a suitable methodology (seismic testing, exploratory drilling, etc) to assess the quality of a given site for geological storage.
• Develop a common generic methodology to address the various criteria put in place by the regulatory authorities with the ultimate view of satisfying the certification criteria that they will enforce.
• Compose a Collaborative Project (large-scale integrating project), with a predominant research component.
• Assist the regulatory process to be put in place regarding the storage of CO2.
• Seek connection and cooperation with one or more of the specific sites for CO2 storage emerging in Europe, where a deep saline aquifer could be used for the storage part.
• Seek cooperation with organizations from the member countries of the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSFL).

The strategic objective of MUSTANG is therefore to develop and disseminate a comprehensive set of generic yet practical tools and methodologies for the identification, assessment, characterization and evaluation of deep saline aquifers for CO2 storage. The most challenging issue is to demonstrate that containment will be effective, in the short and long term. This involves the following:

• Determining the spatial extent and geometry of the seal.
• Demonstrating that it is not compromised by faults, fractures or thinning over the entire potential footprint of the CO2 plume.
• Characterizing the strength of the capillary seal.
• Demonstrating that CO2 injection will not damage the seal – either by geo-mechanical effects associated with pressure build-up or by geochemical interactions. It is important to know the size of the injected plume of CO2 – as this will determine the spatial extent over which the seal is needed.

In order to achieve the overall objective, and with a specific focus on the aforementioned technical issues, a number of secondary objectives has been delineated as follows:

• Develop tools for deriving improved CO2 storage performance estimates such as CIC (Containment - Injectivity – Capacity), tools that enable the evaluation of the CO2 injection discharges that can be applied to a specific site (Injectivity), of the total volume that can be stored (Capacity) and of the retention of the CO2 over time (Containment).
• Provide the tools for identifying potential sites and for characterizing their suitability for CO2 storage, i.e. determining the nature and spatial extent of the seal; identifying and quantifying the impact of possible faults and fractures and their capacity to convey CO2 outside the reservoir.
• Conduct an extensive effort on process investigation both at the theoretical level and by means of innovative and challenging laboratory experiments, aimed at quantitatively understanding the major processes occurring during the injection and spreading of super-critical CO2 (interaction with rock formation, impact on the sealing properties, dissolution, migration, instability effects, trapping and long term effects, etc.). Of particular interest are the characterization of the capillary seal, evaluation of the impact of the stored CO2 on the properties of the medium in general and of the seal in particular (geo-mechanical effects resulting from pressure build-up and or geochemical reactions)
• Identify the needs for monitoring (in space and time), provide methods for the development of cost-effective monitoring networks and technologies for the monitoring, by combining dedicated seismic techniques and drilling.
• Develop tools and methodologies for risk assessment to human health and the environment at large resulting from possible accidents (leakage through the cap-rock towards freshwater aquifers, leakage through faults and or abandoned wells) or due to uncertainties in the characterization of site settings.
• Demonstrate measurement and monitoring technologies and validate the computational models to be constructed by means of a dedicated validation experiment of CO2 injection at field scale, under the real conditions of CO2 storage.
• Address the relationships between risk and liabilities during the injection and post-injection phases and provide the information to the regulating authorities.
• Develop procedures for an efficient dissemination aimed at achieving maximum impact among the potential contractors, users and or stakeholders of CO2 storage.

The objectives of the specific work packages are summarized below.

WP2 – Test Sites
Objectives are
• Gather all the available data and information that is relevant to the quantification of CO2 storage. Supplement available data with the information to be collected within the framework of MUSTANG.
• Develop a conceptual model of each test site.
• Prepare all the necessary input for the computational models of each test sites to be used in WP’s on modeling and impact evaluation. The field sites for which detailed conceptual models will be constructed, are the sites in South Scania (Sweden), Horstberg (Germany), Valcele (Romania), Heletz (Israel), Hontomín (Spain).

WP3 - Field Quantification Technologies
Objectives are
• Provide innovative, CCS-adapted, field measurement techniques to assess the suitability of a deep geologic saline formation for CO2 storage.
• Provide technologies for monitoring the fate of CO2 during the injection and migration phases in a saline aquifer.
• Recommend suitable and cost-effectives technologies that could be applied for the MMV (Measurement Monitoring Verification) process.

WP4 - Laboratory Experiments and Natural Analogues
Objectives are
• Provide support to the theoretical improvement of reservoir-scale modeling, including parameter upscaling, by characterizing mass transfer mechanisms and identifying controlling parameters from core-sample scale to reservoir scale.
• Parameterize the thermo-hydro-mechanical & chemical - THMC - processes associated with the migration of supercritical and dissolved CO2 in the aquifers and through the seal.
• Produce a comprehensive, self consistent, experiment and field observation data base for validating models.

WP5 - Processes
The overall objective of this WP is to provide a comprehensive framework, in the form of process models, for the description and investigation of the major processes occurring during the injection of CO2 into a brine-containing formation and the interactions that will take place between the injected CO2, the solid matrix and the indigenous liquid in the formation. This will enable the investigation of (i) the relative significance of the various processes under different conditions, and (ii) the behavior of the system as a whole, in response to various scenarios.

WP6 - Validation experiment
Objectives are
• Perform a CO2 injection experiment at Heletz (Israel) site;
• Test novel monitoring and measurements technologies;
• Validate the process understanding and the resulting mathematical and numerical models;
• Demonstrate the MMV (Measurement Monitoring Verification) process;
• Recommend appropriate and cost-effective measurement and monitoring technologies.
• Achieve a high degree of integration of measurements and computational technologies and contribute to the preparation of best practices for the MMV process;
• Contribute to the development of best-practices regarding the MMV process.

WP7 - Modeling and model development
The overall objective is to provide a comprehensive modeling approach and associated numerical tools for the simulation of flow, transport, reactive transport, thermal and chemical processes occurring to the fluids and to the rock matrix during the injection and storage of CO2, with special emphasis on the coupled effects, multiple scales and uncertainties due to heterogeneity. More specifically, the objectives are to:
• Adopt the best available THMC models for the simulation of the CO2 flow and transport processes in deep saline formations; update them according to the findings of the Processes WP and incorporate a probabilistic approach for leakage pathway modeling into these models
• Apply these models to the validation experiment in Heletz and to the test sites, firstly, to validate the models and second, to get an understanding of the site performance, to be used as input in terms of ICE and risk assessment
• Update existing codes by incorporating innovative numerical schemes able to quantify the impacts on seal integrity resulting from the injection of CO2.

WP8 - Scale effects
Objectives are
• Identify the time and space scales that are relevant for understanding and modeling of CO2 spreading and for evaluation of performance and risk assessment.
• For each identified level of time – space scale, outline the significant flow and transport processes that need to be taken in account.
• For each process and time – space scale, define the upscaled formulation of the individual processes and of the comprehensive models that describe the injection and spreading in the brine saturated formation.

WP9 - Certification
Objectives are
• Develop a generic methodology for performance and risk assessment related to CO2 storage in saline aquifers;
• Application of the methodology in one of the MUSTANG test sites;
• Develop measures for the performance evaluation of the CO2 storage in a specific reservoir.
• Address the liability issue.
• Outline a set of practical guidelines for the quantification of a specific site for CO2 storage.
• Develop a decision support system in order to assist the decision making process both at the scientific level and the decision making level.

WP10 – Impact
Objectives are
• Ensure efficient and reliable flow of information and knowledge within the consortium during the project lifetime;
• Disseminate results, findings and deliverables within the consortium and to the wide community of scientists, engineers and end users;
• Ensure adequate degree of communication and understanding at the level of the scientific community;
• Develop a knowledge management system to be implemented at the initial stage of the project to facilitate and support the internal and external transfer of knowledge;
• Maximize the impact of the project;
• Set-up of a network to other CO2 storage related research projects, experimental sites and commercial companies for the effective employment of MUSTANG results as well as to integrate data and knowledge of a wide spectrum of potential sites.

Project Results:
The description of the main S&T results/foreground are provided in a separate report that is attached.
Potential Impact:
Socio-economic impact and societal implications

MUSTANG has been addressing an issue of high relevance to society and it’s environmental and energy policy, namely geological carbon storage that is envisaged as a bridging technology in combating the negative climatic effects of carbon dioxide. More specifically, the project has provided new and improved methods and understanding for characterizing saline aquifers for this purpose; geological formations that are traditionally less understood, yet important due to their large volumetric capacity world-wide. The socio-economic impacts and wider societal implications of an individual project are difficult to identify, especially at the end of the project, as such effects can be expected to take a long time to manifest themselves. Nevertheless, we can expect MUSTANG to have contributed to better and/or possibly more cost-effective methodologies and understanding in this field, thereby providing (1) industry, regulators and other practitioners with methodologies and expertise to investigate geological storage of CO2 in specific formations, and (2) the general public with an independent body of general knowledge that can help in confidence-building towards implementing this bridging technology.

Throughout the project duration some of the key components have been an extensive international cooperation and exposure (including an high-level advisory board, as well as overseas experts), affiliating a balanced pool of industrial partners, stakeholders and regulatory agencies to the project as well as contributing to the public outreach early on. The extensive dissemination activities to assure that the project results come to use are described below, as is the present and potential exploitation of the results. A special note should be given to the significant educational components of the project, including organization of training courses, producing educational material and involving students (PostDocs, PhD and MSc students) in the project work, thereby educating a ‘new generation’ of experts.

Dissemination overview

Dissemination activities have included production of the semi-annual newsletter, a continuously updated project website, semi-annual consortium meetings, training courses, presentations in meetings and conferences, organization of conference sessions as well as interviews and appearances in the general media. Below, more explanations of these activities are provided.

Semi-annual newsletters have been released since the start of the project. These newsletters have provided current information on the status of the project as well as of the various work packages and have been distributed to a network of potentially interested organizations. All newsletters are also found on the project webpage.

The MUSTANG web portal was established in October 2009. It was built and has been continuously maintained to provide information on the main activities and results of the project, but also to provide general information on Carbon Capture and storage (CCS) technology and activities for the public. The website can be accessed through http://www.co2mustang.eu. The Web site includes:
• General information on the project: objectives, members of the project consortium, work program.
• Results achieved during the project: submitted deliverables, journal publications, key presentations in the consortium meetings, other dissemination material (posters, lectures from MUSTANG partners in other related events)
• Related CCS information: general information regarding CCS, links to other related projects, and other events on CCS issues.
• Dissemination documents: the semi-annual newsletter, project flyer and the poster.
• A news section with the most relevant activities in the project.

The website contains both a public part and an intranet intended for internal information management between the project partners.

Training courses

Organizing formal Training courses has been a method to disseminate the project results and also to increase general knowledge of methodologies related to saline aquifer quantification for CO2 storage.

• The first MUSTANG training course was organized by partner CSIC and Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) on 17-19th June 2010, in Barcelona. The focus was on Numerical Modeling of CO2 storage, especially with the CODE_BRIGHT model.
• The second Training course was organized by University of Edinburgh, in connection to the Edinburgh consortium meeting (MUSTANG Training Course on Geological Storage of CO2, Edinburgh, 22 – 24th June 2011). This course gave an overview of the current status of CCS operations and research, with the objective of providing a basic understanding of the scientific and technical issues that need to be addressed, in particular in terms of storage in saline aquifers. Keynote overview lectures were given by the SIRAB members from IEAGHG, LBNL, Statoil and Vattenfall and topical lectures by MUSTANG partners, on different technical aspects from laboratory and field experiments, to modeling. A field visit to a Natural Analogue in St Andrews was also included as was a visit to the Edinburgh laboratory facilities.
• An additional, informal training course was organized on the use of iTOUGH/TOUGH codes on 30th November 2012 at Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. TOUGH2 code is one of the most widely used codes in CCS research, developed by LBNL. One of the key developers gave a short introduction to the code(s) and answered the users’ questions.
• The third Training course was organized by University of Göttingen, in Göttingen, Germany (10-11th October, 2013). This third course had a general part with similar general content as the second Workshop, with project partners as lecturers and a second part on the specific use of the PFLOTRAN code, by the code developers from LLNL, USA. This third training course was jointly organized with two other EU projects TRUST and PANACEA.
• The fourth and final Training workshop was also the closing meeting of the MUSTANG project, held at Uppsala University, Uppsala on 26- 27th May 2014. This workshop was most widely advertised and summarized all the MUSTANG results. It also had a special part of Panel Discussions addressing the general issues of CCS in general and the research needs in particular, with high level expertise from SIRAB members from IEAGHG, Statoil, LBNL, Australia, as well as an independent CCS expert from Norway. When formulating the panel questions, regulator(s) were approached to bring up their point of view. The extensive proceedings consist of two parts: (1) part one containing the invited keynote talks and summarizing the outcome and conclusions of the panel discussions and (2) part two that has all the presentations of the MUSTANG work, thereby giving a good overview of the work done in the project. The presentation viewgraphs are available in full at the project website as well.

Proceedings of all training workshops are also to be found on project website, under Deliverables for Work Packages on ‘Impact’. These proceeding also give an overview of the attendance and other parameters of the workshops. In general, the training courses have been well attended by participants from different countries and types of organizations, with a majority of participants being PhD students and other specialists working on or planning on working on CCS.

Other topic-specific scientific and educational dissemination

There has been a large number of topic-specific scientific presentations and publications by MUSTANG partners as described in the WP descriptions in the various progress reports (core reports about MUSTANG results, reported under WP1, Management on project website) and also listed in the Appendix of this final report.

A major scientific dissemination effort has been a MUSTANG presence at the European Geosciences Union General Assembly in Vienna, April 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014. We proposed and have convened (the coordinator UU and the partners CSIC and UGOTT) a new session on ‘Site Characterization/Field testing in CO2 geological storage’ which has been very well attended during 2011-2014. We have also convened/co-convened other CO2 related sessions during the same period, especially sessions related to CO2 modeling and seismic monitoring. Based on the outcome of year 2012 CO2 sessions, a special issue is also in preparation to the highly recognized International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control (Vol 19, Nov 2013), with the coordinator as one of the guest co-editors and a number of submissions from the MUSTANG project. Similarly, year 2013 CO2 sessions resulted in a special issue of Energy Procedia (Vol 40, 2013).

Discussions are also underway with a positive response from International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control to have a dedicated special edition on the MUSTANG field injection site Heletz and the work that has been done there. This will be completed after the completion of the project.

Another high-level dissemination activity that we envisage to have a long-term impact, is the edited book (Niemi, Bear, Bensabat as editors and MUSTANG partners and certain SIRAB members and other key researchers as authors) around the themes of MUSTANG work (Geological Storage of CO2 in Deep Saline Aquifers to be published by Springer) . The contract has been signed with Springer and the book is expected to be completed at the end of 2014. The book is expected to be used as educational material at universities and training courses, including the training courses of projects that can be seen as some type of continuation of MUSTANG (PANACEA, TRUST, CO2QUEST).

General dissemination to the scientific/technical community, end-users and regulators

Main dissemination of project results to the scientific/technical community, end-users and regulators have been

• Presentations of the project, mainly by the project coordinator, in international meetings and conferences, often as invited speaker
• The fruitful and extensive interaction with the MUSTANG Scientific, Industrial and Regulatory Advisory Board (SIRAB).
• Participation to the EASAC (European Academies of Sciences Advisory Council) Working Group on CCS, work on the publication ‘CCS in Europe’
• Organizing a special openly advertised workshop, together with other EU-projects, on long-term effects of CO2, in Trondheim

Examples of general presentations concerning the MUSTANG project include presentations (by the coordinator) in the following major international conferences and events (more detail given in the presentations summary in the appropriate Appendix of this final report):
• Conference on Carbon Capture & Sequestration 4th - 7th May 2009, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
• EGU General Assembly 2009
• European Conference on CCS Research, Development and Demonstration. 19-22 April 2010, Rotterdam.
• CCS from cradle to grave: The technical and safety challenges’, IChemE Workshop, Birmingham, UK, 22-23 March 2012 (invited)
• Sixth Trondheim CCS Conference: CO2 Capture, Transport and Storage 14-16 June 2011. Trondheim, Norway.
• CCS Research & Development to Implementation Conference. 24 - 26 May 2011, London, United Kingdom (invited)
• Seventh CO2GeoNet Open Forum, Venice, 17-19 April 2012 (invited)
• Eight CO2GeoNet Open Forum, Venice, 9-11th April 2013 (invited)
• CO2 Capture and Storage in the Baltic Sea Countries Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), 23rd May 2013, Espoo (CO2GeoNet meeting) (invited)
• Seventh Trondheim CCS Conference: CO2 Capture, Transport and Storage 4-6 June 2013. Trondheim, Norway.
• 4th Annual Global Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage Summit 22-23 October, 2013, Beijing, China (invited)
• Leading the way in CCS implementation Workshop 14-15th April, 2014 UKCCS Research Centre, London, UK (invited)
• European Carbon Capture & Storage Research & Development Workshop (ECCSRD) 18th June 2014 Cranfield university, England (invited)

Examples of MUSTANG presence (interviews/general presentations) in general media/events to general public/non-specialists and policy makers include
• European Academies of Science Advisory Board (EASAC); working group on CCS.
Report ‘Carbon capture and storage in Europe’; EASAC policy report 20, was completed and launched at Brussels, on 22 May 2013 (http://www.easac.eu/). MUSTANG coordinator (Niemi) was a member of the working group and responsible for answering the specific questions related to geological storage. While this work was obviously not financed by MUSTANG, it involves part of the dissemination of project results to a wider audience.
• ‘Future wellbeing of mankind – Global threats and possibilities’ Seminar with international speakers at Uppsala University, 13 June 2012 (invited)
• Feature Article/ Profile in Pan European Networks – 8 Nov 2013 (European Science News). European level publication intended to policymakers, end-users and general public.

Appearances in mainly national level meetings for general public/non-specialists and policy makers include
• Energy09, Symposium at Uppsala University, Uppsala, 21-22 Oct 2009. (Invited)
• Sveriges Energiting. March 2010. (invited)
• GeoArena–Mötesplats Geologi (Meeting Place for Geology). Uppsala Kongress och Konsert, Uppsala, 16-17 October 2012 (invited)
• Svenska Kolinstitutet (Swedish Coal Institute) – Yearly meeting, Stockholm, 7 March 2013 (invited)
• SwedSTORECO2: towards a national test site for CO2 storage in Sweden - A seminar about carbon storage in Swedish bedrock, Uppsala, 5th March, 2013
• Hydrology days 24 March, 2014 Stockholm, Sweden (invited)
• Presentation to Russian Ambassador to Sweden 18 May 2011 Uppsala, Sweden
• Presentation to Danish Ambassador to Sweden 21 May 2014 Uppsala, Sweden

Interviews and other outreach in general media etc. to general public and policy makers, national and international
• interview for Uppsala Nya Tidning; summer 2009
• interview in Swedish TV news; July 2010
• interview for Sydsvenskan (Newspaper covering the issues of Southern Sweden)
• interview in Swedish Geological Survey Information Newspaper in the Today’s Industry, Spring 2010
• Interview for Swedish radio, Feb 2011
• IEA-GHG newsletters, summer 2010 and Aug 2012.
• Interview in ‘Research of the Future’ (Framtidens Forskning), June 2012, published as an attachment to a major Swedish newspaper (Svenska Dagbladet) and distributed e.g. at the important Swedish political/policy-making week at Almedalen, Gotland, summer 2012
• Interview ‘Promising prospects of CO2 geological storage in bedrock’ (Lovande möjligheter för lagring av koldioxid i berggrunden) in Swedish Geological Survey’s
(SGU) attachment on geological research news to Dagens Industri (Industry of the Day)
• Appearance on Australian CO2CRC newsletter, June 2012
• Interview in ‘Forskarbladet- Tema Energi’ (Swedish newspaper intended to disseminate research results’ (March 2013)

Examples of presentations in international collaboration meetings by the coordinator include
• EU-Canada collaboration meeting in Ottawa, Canada May 4-6th, 2010.
• EU-Japan collaboration meeting in Amsterdam, September 21-22, 2010
• Meeting for Danish Research Council project “Environmental Technology for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide”, Copenhagen, Sep 13, 2010 as a member of the advisory board
• Thematic Workshop – Clean Coal Technologies, InnoEnergy. 25th May 2010, AGH-UST, Krakow, Poland

Organization of an International Workshop on long-term effects of CO2

On 3rd June 2013, ‘Brainstorming Day on the long-term fate of geologically stored CO2’ was organized in Trondheim, Norway, in collaboration with four other EU FP7 projects (PANACEA (main organizer), ULTIMATECO2, CO2CARE and CARBFIX). The event was hosted by Statoil and was organized in connection to the Trondheim CCS conference, in order to maximize the exposure to relevant interested parties. The Brainstorming Day gathered 49 attendees from universities, research institutes and industry. MUSTANG partners and MUSTANG SIRAB representatives had an active role in chairing several of the sessions. The meeting information can be found on http://www.bsdt2013.org.

Role of the Scientific, Industrial and Regulatory Advisory Board

A key component in the MUSTANG project has been the Scientific, Industrial and Regulatory Advisory Board (SIRAB) comprising leading experts in the field of CCS and other key participants. This advisory board has representation from 25 organizations, falling in mainly three categories 1) overseas and international scientific advisors (IEAGHG, LBNL (USA), Stanford University, CO2CRC (Australia) JOGMEG (Japan)); 2) key industries including Statoil, Vattenfall, EnBW, Petrobras, Schlumberger, EoN, to mention some and 3) regulators from the countries where there is a project field site. The full list of members is given on www.co2mustang.eu/MUSTANG_advisory.aspx. The role of the SIRAB has been two-fold: to give advice and feedback on the ongoing research and to disseminate the project results via them. Members of the SIRAB have been invited to attend the semi-annual consortium meetings, to deliver presentations and provide feedback and reviews on the project progress. Additionally, the coordinator and some WP leaders of MUSTANG have had meetings with certain members of the SIRAB on specific issues, upon demand. This has been especially the case for the planning of the Heletz CO2 injection experiment, where the role of SIRAB has been very valuable. Most of the SIRAB members have attended at least one of the meetings. Detailed attendance can be seen in Consortium meeting agendas and/or summary progress reports, under Management (both to be found on project website)

Cooperation with other research programs dealing with CO2 storage

MUSTANG has actively collaborated with several other research programs dealing with CO2 storage. Specifically, through the collaboration structure of SIRAB, especially with CO2CRC and Otway project (Australia); the extensive CO2 research activities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA; Stanford University (Benson Lab, Stanford University); IEAGHG networks and many key industries.

Collaboration/exchange with other EU FP7 projects included both joint organization and/or participation meetings and interest/advisory boards; EU FP7 projects RISCS; CO2PipeHaz; PANACEA, UlitmateCO2; CO2Care; TRUST. We have also given presentations in networking conferences organized by CO2GeoNet and by CO2NET. The Ketzin site was formally visited by the entire consortium.

At the institutional level, numerous MUSTANG beneficiaries have been and are actively involved in a number of CO2 storage projects and related activities within their own organizations. Examples include Danish Research Council funded project “Environmental Technology for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide”; Norwegian SUCCESS project; SwedStoreCO2 – a Swedish national project investigating the possibility for a pilot scale injection in Sweden; Bastor – a project looking at possibilities of injecting CO2 in the Baltic Sea region; ADEME (French agency for environment and energy control); CO2 storage program of the Spanish CIUDEN foundation; CO2FIELDLAB, ANR COLINER, ANR CO2FIX; VR-CO2, Swedish Research Council strategic funds for CO2 research; CASSEM - the UK’s first evaluation of saline formation storage; SCCS, a partnership with several industries and Scottish government and completing a detailed evaluation for storage of one selected saline formation in the North Sea; Compostilla EEPR project, lead by CIUDEN; Characterization and selection of potential formations for deep geological storage in the frame of the project lead by the Spanish Geological Survey (beneficiary AMPHOS). These are only examples and not an exhaustive list, giving an idea of the contact surface between MUSTANG and many other key projects.

Exploitation of results

The products developed in the project include
• Expertise that could be offered by means of consulting/supervising at various levels of CO2 projects (field experiments, laboratory experiments, design and planning of CO2 injection, field characterization).
• Modeling software and modeling competence that could be deployed either commercially or non-commercially, for an improved analysis and modeling of CO2 storage.
• Hardware in the field of seismic monitoring and tracer experiments; part of this hardware is mature and commercialized; part will be commercial in the near and mid-future.

One way to implement the technologies developed within MUSTANG is that involved partners offer services and products on an individual basis, in CO2 related projects and beyond (oil and gas industry, environmental protection, water resources management). De facto this is already happening: UU is already using the knowledge and expertise gained in MUSTANG for the development of the emerging Swedish and Baltic CCS programs, VIBROMETRIC and UGOE are deploying the hardware they have developed, UEDIN and EWRE are already providing services based on the knowledge acquired in MUSTANG. A second implementation that is already happening resides in the fact that most of the partners are cooperating in CO2 storage projects funded by the EU (PANACEA, TRUST, CO2QUEST). These projects are helping in further developing the reported products and expertise and additional ones. Finally, it can be brought up that the EU CCS demonstration project including the Hontomin site, has in terms of the development of the test injections and the site characterization been developing very much parallel and in collaboration to the MUSTANG project and it can therefore be said, that MUSTANG work has even here already contributed to an emerging larger scale project.

Altogether, MUSTANG has contributed to the development of European expertise in the field of CO2 storage; expertise that could be used by both the industrial and regulatory sectors. The wide geographical diversity of the partners and their structures does not allow for a common, rigid structure, capable of delivering integrated solutions in the field of CO2 storage, which could be the ideal outcome of the project. However, we could envisage a flexible structure with ad hoc per cooperation between partners on a project basis, in order to suggest design and planning expertise as well as technologies (those developed in MUSTANG and the subsequent projects). MUSTANG has laid the groundwork for the formation of such a structure and the subsequent projects will provide the opportunity to materialize it.

One of the key questions is that the industrial deployment of CO2 storage in Europe has not progressed as perhaps envisaged at the onset of MUSTANG. Part of the problem is believed to be the public opinion. In such an atmosphere, independent, largely university-based expert groups like MUSTANG can be valuable assets in confidence building and providing independent research both for the society at large, for the industry, and for the regulators.

List of Websites:
Public website: www.co2mustang.eu
Contact details: Professor Auli Niemi, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden, auli.niemi@geo.uu.se