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Climate Impact Research & Response Coordination for a Larger Europe - 2nd Generation ERA-Net -Science meets Policy

Final Report Summary - CIRCLE-2 (Climate Impact Research & Response Coordination for a Larger Europe - 2nd Generation ERA-Net -Science meets Policy)

Executive Summary:
The CIRCLE-2 ERA-Net (Climate Impact Research and Response Coordination for a Larger Europe) marks a significant step towards the establishment of a European Research Area (ERA) on Climate Adaptation research. This FP7 funded second generation ERA-Net (2010-2014) followed on the footsteps of the FP6 funded CIRCLE SSA (2004-2005) and CIRCLE CA (2005-2009).

CIRCLE-2 is a European Network of 34 institutions from 23 countries committed to fund research and share knowledge on Climate Adaptation and the promotion of long-term cooperation among national and regional Climate Change programmes.

A structuring impact on the European Climate Adaptation research landscape can only be achieved if research funding is jointly designed and deployed and if its results are shared in effective ways. Thus, CIRCLE-2 aims to further reinforce the coordination and cooperation between national, regional and EU-wide climate change Adaptation research programmes.

CIRCLE-2 contributes to these efforts along three complementary and interconnected ways:
• By designing a common research agenda and joint programming foresight activities (WP-2 DESIGN) necessary to structure a common language and framework for policy relevant Adaptation research;
• By funding Adaptation research though transnational joint initiatives and joint calls (WP-3 FUND) therefore contributing to a durable cooperation among European climate research programmes, their funders and research communities;
• Making available existing knowledge on Adaptation and fostering the production of research along identified needs (WP-4 SHARE), thus supporting the development of a European knowledge base on Climate Change

Project Context and Objectives:
The CIRCLE-2 ERA-Net (Climate Impact Research and Response Coordination for a Larger Europe) marks a significant step towards the establishment of a European Research Area (ERA) on Climate Adaptation research. This FP7 funded second generation ERA-Net (2010-2014) followed on the footsteps of the FP6 funded CIRCLE SSA (2004-2005) and CIRCLE CA (2005-2009).

CIRCLE-2 is a European Network of 34 institutions from 23 countries committed to fund research and share knowledge on Climate Adaptation and the promotion of long-term cooperation among national and regional Climate Change programmes.

Climate Change Impact assessment and related Adaptation research are emerging scientific and policy areas in Europe. Several international political frameworks, commitments and initiatives are currently acting as main scientific-technological drivers and shaping research activities. Interactions between science and policy have developed into unprecedented levels of intensity. Expert scientific advice has been increasingly called upon to enable informed decision-making, but linking scientific knowledge and authoritative political decision-making is not a straightforward task.

Coordinating nationally developed knowledge (typically via research programmes) with European and international frameworks is a growing demand. Making sure that policies and investments such as the ones related to climate Adaptation are cost effective is a continuous need. Global challenges such as Climate Change make the coordination of high quality research an absolute imperative to support national and European actions.

CIRCLE-2 is focused on the interface between Climate Change science and policy. Through the promotion of networking activities it aims to maximise the degree to which research outcomes address both national and European climate policy needs on Adaptation.

A structuring impact on the European Climate Adaptation research landscape can only be achieved if research funding is jointly designed and deployed and if its results are shared in effective ways. Thus, CIRCLE-2 aims to further reinforce the coordination and cooperation between national, regional and EU-wide climate change Adaptation research programmes.

CIRCLE-2 contributes to these efforts along three complementary and interconnected ways:
• By designing a common research agenda and joint programming foresight activities (WP-2 DESIGN) necessary to structure a common language and framework for policy relevant Adaptation research;
• By funding Adaptation research though transnational joint initiatives and joint calls (WP-3 FUND) therefore contributing to a durable cooperation among European climate research programmes, their funders and research communities;
• Making available existing knowledge on Adaptation and fostering the production of research along identified needs (WP-4 SHARE), thus supporting the development of a European knowledge base on Climate Change

Project Results:
The CIRCLE-2 ERA-net developed well along the proposed work plan. Several activities have been developed in each of the work packages (WP) and respective tasks.
Main results are summarized below and all information can easily be accessed from www.circle-era.eu.

WP-1 LEAD
The overall objectives of this WP were to ensure the project with high quality management and coordination, monitor and report progress, and control administrative, financial and timeline related issues. Furthermore, this WP intended to provide the project with an integrated communication strategy and support effective and efficient management of communications.

Besides internal meetings, the Coordinator together with Work Package Leaders, Task Leaders and other Partners, have actively participated in a number of meetings and conferences not organised within the frame of the project, but directly related to its scope (results and more information on this events can be accessed at http://www.circle-era.eu/np4/events).

These meetings have worked towards one of the project’s main goals, which are to serve as a sustainable basis for the development of an ERA (European Research Area) on Climate Change Adaptation in a larger Europe (i.e. the EC plus its Member States and neighbouring countries).

Among these events, some can be highlighted due to its impact or because they have provided a strategic direction to the CIRCLE-2 agenda, namely:
• The 2010 International Climate Change Adaptation Conference: Climate Adaptation Futures;
• The Fourth (2010), Fifth (2011), Sixth (2012) and Seventh EIONET Workshops on Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation;
• The 2010 International Workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: Reducing Water-related Risks in Europe;
• The Tenth (2010), Eleventh (2011) and Twelfth (2012) EMS Annual Meeting & European Conference on Applied Climatology;
• The Joint Programming 2010 event: a common approach towards innovation;
• The 2010 Nordic Top-Level Research Initiative: Effect Studies and Adaptation to Climate Change;
• The 2010 International Conference ‘Climate Adaptation in the Nordic Countries: Science, Practice, Policy’;
• The 2010 DG RTD Workshop on continuation of ERA-NET's;
• The 2010 EU Belgium presidency Conference Adaptation to the changing climate: time to intensify efforts;
• Annual Event on Joint Programming 2011 - "Public to Public Partnerships"
• World Congress of the Organisation of World Heritage Cities (OWHC), 2011;
• Project EQUIP (End-to-end quantification of uncertainty for impacts prediction) Annual Meeting, 2011;
• JPI Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change (FACCE) 1st Mapping meeting, 2011;
• Launch of the European Climate Adaptation Platform (Climate-ADAPT), 2011;
• Adaptation Futures - 2012 International Conference on Climate Adaptation
• JPI Climate 1st Call Scoping Workshop, 2012;
• Meeting on Climate Services between EC services, Climate KIC, Climate JPI and CIRCLE2 ERA-NET, 2012;
• Second Nordic International Conference on Climate Change Adaptation, 2012;
• JPI Climate Workshop on Sustainable Transformations of Society in the Face of Climate Change Knowledge Needs and Knowledge Gaps, 2012;
• Launch event for JPI Climate, Brussels, 6 November 2012;
• ECCA - First European Climate Change Adaptation Conference - integrating climate into action, Hamburg, 18-20 March 2013
• Launch event of the EU Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change, April 2013;
• CIRCLE-2/EEA Experts meeting on ‘National Adaptation Platforms’, Copenhagen, Denmark, 19 June 2013;
• CIRCLE-2 Workshop on ‘Adaptation to Climate Change: re-vegetation to recover hydrological cycles as an Ecosystem Service’, Teruel, Spain, 10-12 September 2013;
• CIRCLE-2 MOUNTain Final Event and Seminar, Barcelona, Spain, 26-27 September 2013;
• EEA Grants/CIRCLE-2 International Conference: ‘Too Much, Too Little: The Role of Water in Adaptation to Climate Change’, Lisbon, Portugal, 7-9 October 2013;
• CIRCLE-2 Workshop on ‘Adaptation Platforms in Europe: Addressing challenges and sharing lessons’, Vienna, Austria, 7-8 November 2013;
• CIRCLE-2 Workshop on ‘Science-practice collaboration on climate change adaptation between Europe and low-income-countries’, Bonn, Germany, 29 January 2014;
• CIRCLE-2 Workshop on ‘Cross-sectoral Vulnerability, Risk and Economic Assessments of Climate Change Impacts - What is needed for adaptation strategies?’, Berlin, Germany, 11 February 2014;
• CIRCLE-2 Final Event ‘Adaptation Frontiers: International Conference on European Climate Change Adaptation’, Lisbon, Portugal, 10-12 March 2014

The Coordinator (FFCUL) has developed and used an integrated communication strategy. Main features and operational elements of this strategy are:
• A public web-site (www.circle-era.eu) with and dedicated administrative/content management area (http://www.circle-era.eu/np4Admin/);
• A corporate image with clear project identification (http://www.circle-era.eu/np4/17.html);
• An intranet/extranet facility for secure content sharing (http://extra.circle-era.eu);
• A public InfoBase (http://infobase.circle-era.eu)

Besides these elements several media products have been produced:
• Media special issues, articles, flyers, posters, videos and other material (http://www.circle-era.eu/np4/MediaCentre);
• Newsletters (http://www.circle-era.eu/np4/Newsletter.html);
• Publications (http://www.circle-era.eu/np4/publications).

And finally a set of websites dedicated to the CIRCLE-2 Final Conference:
• The CIRCLE-2 Final Conference (http://adaptationfrontiers.eu/)
• The CIRCLE-2 Final Conference Livestream (http://new.livestream.com/livestreaming-pt/adaptation-frontiers)

Several other meetings and conferences, focused on either a purely ERA perspective (EU research strategy and funding), or on a more CCIVA research content have counted with the participation of several CIRCLE-2 Partners and Contributing Partners. This has made CIRCLE-2 visible not only in Europe but also throughout the world, thus contributing to the proposed objective of providing a coordination role to European research on Climate Change Adaptation.

WP-2 DESIGN
The objectives of this WP were to review and analyse available CIRCLE knowledge on CCIVA research and scope for opportunities for long-term transnational research cooperation.
The WP DESIGN was central to CIRCLE-2 cooperation efforts as it contributed to identify and analyse available research and other initiatives on Climate Change Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation (CCIVA) in Europe with a view to foster synergies and joint actions among countries in terms of future research and its funding.

Furthermore, this WP intended to design and set up a CIRCLE-2 common strategic research agenda on CCIVA research based on relevant topics and questions at the regional, national and European level thus creating a programmatic agenda focusing on climate adaptation research and policy.

As a final objective this WP intended to foster and facilitate joint programming by exploring the 3-stage process of joint programming implementation (i.e. development of a Common Vision, a Common Strategic research agenda and Implementation) in order to assess opportunities for a follow-up of CIRCLE-2.

Within Task 1.3 (CIRCLE-2 Integrated Communication Strategy and Management) CIRCLE-2 has been developing a public database on climate adaptation research (part of D1.3-b: Updatable CIRCLE-2 outreach tool-kit, web-page and database).

The CIRCLE-2 Climate Adaptation INFOBASE (http://infobase.circle-era.eu) is a public database on climate adaptation research that CIRCLE-2 has been developing within its integrated communication strategy and management task. The Climate Adaptation INFOBASE includes research projects finalized after 2005, funded at national and local levels, as well as transnational projects jointly funded by CIRCLE CA or CIRCLE-2 members.

The development of the CIRCLE-2 Climate Adaptation INFOBASE was detailed in the project’s work plan for 2010-2014. Building on the experience of CIRCLE CA (2005-2009) that promoted the ad-hoc development of a climate change research database at the national level, the CIRCLE-2 ERA-Net agreed to pursue the development of an enhanced information platform and to place its focus on adaptation research rather than climate change at large.

The INFOBASE development started in 2010, with the design of a prototype structure, definition of key contents and layout. This work was carried in close cooperation with all CIRCLE-2 Partners and Contributing Partners.

Having as a reference the classification of sectors and categories presented by the EC White Paper on adapting to climate change (EC, 2009a) and some of the work on the establishment of what is currently the Climate-ADAPT platform (previously known as the Adaptation Clearinghouse for Europe), the INFOBASE’s sectors and categories, i.e. the way projects are tagged, were chosen with the specific objective of having a direct link and facilitating integration with future EU policy developments in this area.

On March 2011 the first prototype of the INFOBASE was ready and open to comments and suggestions from three different related communities working on adaptation in Europe, namely the CIRCLE-2, ETC/CCA and EEA. The representatives of these communities were asked to provide feedback and suggestions on the INFOBASE general layout, design and functionalities to be subsequently integrated by the platform developers.

As of May 2011 the CIRCLE-2 Climate Adaptation INFOBASE was fully functional and available on-line at http://infobase.circle-era.eu/.

Within CIRCLE-2, the INFOBASE has a central role in promoting national efforts of data collection with the aim of enhancing the exchange of information at the European level and beyond. In particular, the INFOBASE is connected to other tasks and deliverables of the project under the DESIGN work package. In fact, the INFOBASE is considered a unique source of information especially on national and local adaptation projects in the European research landscape and also a valuable resource with several applications to the CCIVA community.

The INFOBASE aims to address some of the fundamental gaps in the understanding of how Climate Adaptation science has evolved over the past decade. The information contained in the INFOBASE is of particular relevance for evidence-based adaptation, at a time where the theme gains significant stimulus with the implementation of the European Adaptation Strategy and with the enhancement of Climate-ADAPT moving into its fourth year of existence.

The CIRCLE-2 Climate Adaptation Research in a Larger Europe: an analysis at national scale report was prepared in response to recent advancements in the climate change adaptation knowledge base at the European level and respective developments in the work of CIRCLE-2.

Significant steps have been taken to develop the CIRCLE-2 Climate Adaptation Strategic Research Agenda (CARA). Available knowledge in the CIRCLE-1 Extended Country Report has been assessed and shared with other initiatives such as the currently developing JPIs.

Furthermore questionnaires and surveys (including the CIRCLE-2 Advisory Board) have been deployed to assess specific research interests and to provide the basis for compilation and clustering of research gaps that will serve as initial input to CARA. New topics have been added to the online version of the agenda: http://www.circle-era.eu/np4/CARA.

Under this task, CIRCLE-2 organised the following meetings and workshops:
• DESIGN Workshop ‘Areas of interest for the CIRCLE-2 Climate Adaptation Research Agenda’, 21 June 2011, Bologna, Italy

Furthermore, CIRCLE-2 has actively supported and worked together with the following JPIs:
• CLIMATE (‘Connecting Climate Knowledge for Europe’) [CIRCLE-2 is an observer to this JPI and has supported it through an official letter of support];
• WATER (‘Water Challenges for a Changing World’);
• FACCE (‘Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change’);
• OCEANS (‘Healthy and Productive Seas and Oceans’).

CIRCLE-2 has been recognised as a prime source of knowledge about the barriers and opportunities for the ERA since its experience as an ERA-Net outdates all of the JPIs and thus has been used as a platform for “lessons learnt” in ERA transnational coordination.

WP-3 FUND
The task further analysed the outputs and deliverables related to joint calls development that were used in CIRCLE-1 and that could be further updated or applied to on-going CIRCLE-2 processes (http://www.circle-era.eu/np4/7).

Main results regarding the group approach to joint activities were the continuation of the successful work under the CIRCLE-2 MED, CIRCLE-2 MOUNT and CIRCLE-2 Uncertainties sub-networks. This includes the funded projects and respective activities. All information is available through http://www.circle-era.eu/np4/5 and http://www.circle-era.eu/np4/Joint_Initiatives.

An assessment report on “Identified barriers for transnational research initiatives and good practice options on how to overcome them” was prepared based on the experience from CIRCLE-ERA Net joint research coordination initiatives.

CIRCLE-2 organised the following meetings and workshops:
• Joint Initiative UNCERT- Kick-off Meeting, 24 October 2011, Lisbon, Portugal;
• Joint Initiative UNCERT - #2 Meeting, 11-12 June 2012, Lisbon, Portugal;
• Joint Initiative UNCERT - Workshop on Uncertainty and Climate Change Adaptation, 8-9 November 2012, Lisbon, Portugal;
• Joint Initiative UNCERT Workshop Guidance on dealing with and communicating climate change adaptation in the decision making process, 11-12 February 2012, Lisbon, Portugal;
• CIRCLE-2 MOUNTain Mid-Term Event, 29-30 March 2012,Innsbruck, Austria;
• CIRCLE-2 MOUNTain Final Event, 26-27 September 2013, Barcelona, Spain.

For the CIRCLE-2 MOUNT sub-network this has included the following key outcomes:
• A public website (French version): http://www.circlemontagne.fr/;
• A Kick-off Conference of the CIRCLE-2 MOUNT funded projects;
• A first CIRCLE-2 MOUNT Policy Brief based on the outcomes of that Conference.

For the CIRCLE-2 UNCERT Joint Initiative (JI) this has included the following key outcomes:
• A private area (within the CIRCLE-2 website) to support the development of the JI: http://www.circle-era.eu/np4/UNCERT.html;
• A set of on-going activities within the JI namely, the preparation of a Special Issue in a peer-review journal, a ‘guidance’ book on dealing with climate change uncertainty in adaptation decision-making (published by Springer), and the linking up with several other relevant initiatives and projects.

Further outreach of the results from the calls was done through the following activities:
• Publication of a brochure summarizing CIRCLE-MED projects results;
• Publication of a special issue on CIRCLE-MED projects in the peer reviewed Regional Environmental Change Journal;
• Study analysing communication between scientists and stakeholders regarding adaptation to climate change in the CIRCLE-MED projects;
• Publication of a brochure summarizing CIRCLE-MOUNTain projects results;
• Publication of a CIRCLE-2 UNCERT special issue in Climatic Change;
• Publication of a CIRCLE-2 UNCERT book by Springer.

A major result of CIRCLE-2 has been the launch of a Joint Call for projects.

The CIRCLE-MED2-2013 Joint Call (http://www.circle-era.eu/np4/Call2013.html) launched in March 2013, received 6 research project proposals of which 2 projects were selected and are being funded, following a scientific evaluation process. The projects started in December 2013. The topic of the call was ‘Adaptation to Climate Change from a natural and social science perspective: Water in coastal Mediterranean areas’. The total available budget for the call was 610 k€ and the funding countries of the call were France, Greece, and Portugal.

In addition, CIRCLE2 prepared a strategic analysis of climate adaptation research & policy landscape that includes an extensive mapping of research funding and performing organisations relevant to climate adaptation research agenda setting processes (e.g. Climate Services) in Europe.

WP-4 SHARE
The main objectives of this WP were to share knowledge and experiences and preliminary, intermediate and final research results to support policy development and research programming on climate change adaptation. It also aimed to support identification of lessons learnt and the consideration on new research priorities and to strengthen the science-policy interface on CCIVA issues by intensifying the European and transnational linkage between science and policy development and by doing so, support policy development and targeted research programming. Furthermore, this WP also aimed to encourage and facilitate knowledge transfer by convening knowledge and balancing knowledge differences between European, neighbouring countries and, at a later stage, other countries (e.g. developing countries).

Several CIRCLE-2 workshops (Workshop Series) have been organised, either totally covered by the project or in cooperation with other initiatives and organisations. These have had a clear impact on CCIVA research and policy developments in Europe.

Between 2010 and 2014, the CIRCLE-2 ERA-Net organised the following workshops (FUND and Joint Initiatives Workshops are not included here, see previous section):
• CIRCLE-2 Workshop on “CCIVA Uncertainties”, 11-12 November 2010, Stockholm, Sweden;
• CIRCLE-2 / IS-ENES / EAA Workshop on “Bridging Climate Research Data and the Needs of the Impact Community”, 11-12 January 2011, Copenhagen, Denmark;
• CIRCLE-2 Workshop on “From National Adaptation Strategies to Concrete Adaptation Actions”, 20-21 October 2011, Wien, Austria;
• CIRCLE-2 & JPI Climate scoping Workshop ‘Processes for improving the interface between climate research and its application: sharing experiences on climate services development in Europe’, 8-9 November 2011, Bologna, Italy;
• Workshop ‘Climate Change & Forest Fires in the Mediterranean Basin: Risk Reduction & Management’, 24-26 January 2012, Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel;
• Workshop ‘Supporting the development of the EU strategy for adaptation to climate change - Views and Challenges in Eastern Europe’, 27-28 June 2012, Vienna, Austria;
• Workshop ‘Adaptation to Extreme Water related Events’, 22-23 November 2012, Madrid, Spain;
• Workshop ‘Costs of Inaction and benefits of adaptation’, 29 January 2013, Vienna, Austria;
• CIRCLE-2 sessions at ECCA (European Climate Change Adaptation conference), 18-20 March 2013;
• CIRCLE-2/EEA Experts meeting on “National Adaptation Platforms”, Copenhagen, Denmark, 19 June 2013;
• Adaptation to Climate Change: re-vegetation to recover hydrological cycles as an Ecosystem Service, Teruel, Spain 10-12 September 2013;
• Conference: Too Much, Too Little: The Role of Water in Adaptation to Climate Change, Lisbon, Portugal, 7-9 October 2013;
• Adaptation Platforms in Europe: Addressing challenges and sharing lessons, Vienna, Austria, 7-8 November 2013;
• International workshop on "science-practice collaboration on climate change adaptation between Europe and low-income-countries", Bonn, Germany, 29 January 2014;
• Cross-sectoral Vulnerability, Risk and Economic Assessments of Climate Change Impacts - What is needed for adaptation strategies? Berlin, Germany, 11 February 2014.

Information with proceedings from each of the workshops can be found on the CIRCLE-2 website at http://www.circle-era.eu/np4/workshops.

Furthermore a questionnaire was sent out to the participants in our workshops, and also including the final conference and workshops held within the Med-call and the Mountain-call. The aim with the questionnaire was to address the impact of the meetings – to what extent did the participants find it useful. Over 500 questionnaires were sent out. 70 answers were reported, and the summary of them can be found in the delivery report of task 4.1.

After the ECCA-conference a compilation of the Science-practice sessions were written by CIRCLE-2 and on the basis of those sessions and a number of interviews (within task 4.2) a policy brief in booklet-format was launched in 2014.
Title: Productive Science-practice interactions in Climate Change Adaptation – Lessons from practice (see deliverable 4.2-a).

A policy brief in booklet format was produced with the main outcomes of literature review, a questionnaire survey and interviews related to task 4.3.
Title: Learning through collaboration – Knowledge sharing and development in climate change adaptation research between European and developing countries (see deliverable 4.3-a).

Finally, the project has published during this period the CIRCLE-2 Adaptation Inspiration Book (http://www.circle-era.eu/np4/InspireBook.html).
This publication was officially launched at the ECCA Conference in March 2013 and stands as a highly visible and greatly impacting outcome of the project.

Since its launch copies of the Inspiration book have been distributed to CIRCLE-2 Partners, Contributing Partners and at multiple conferences and other events relevant to the theme of climate adaptation. Numerous requests from several countries outside Europe further highlight the impact that this publication had for adaptation research communities, policy-makers and practitioners at large.

Potential Impact:
Climate adaptation related research is a very complex and dynamic field and new national programmes are currently emerging as successors of older programmes or, like in new Member States and Eastern Europe, are now being initiated with particular urgency. Owing to this dynamic state, a systematic support to adaptation research coordination is needed in order to optimize its methods and tools, while maximizing the relevance of its results.

CIRCLE-2 ERA-Net addressed this challenge by creating a seamless network where knowledge on good practices on research programming and funding can be shared within the consortium and opened up to the exterior.

Responding to a global challenge like the one portrayed by Climate Change implies not only an outstanding degree of knowledge on its consequences but also the capability to address its uncertainties and rapidly adjust to new insights generated throughout time. Addressing such a reality is not an easy task at the European or national level and demands for a continuous interaction between countries and organisations.

CIRCLE-2 ERA-Net supported the following measures:
• Connection of national and common research programmes and research organisations;
• Fostering of well-coordinated research programmes and priorities;
• Linking to and development of existing initiatives;
• Promoting effective knowledge-sharing, notably between public research, industry and the general public;
• Mapping the centres of excellence in research in Europe;
• Coordination and analysis of quality and effectiveness of national politics in R&D;
• Fostering a wide opening of the ERA to the world, with special emphasis on neighbouring countries.

Over the past years (i.e. during CIRCLE CA and CIRCLE-2) partners have agreed that a strong, interdisciplinary and balanced Climate Change transnational research programme needs to be implemented, building on the firm foundations of past experience and achievements and incorporating significant new elements of research.

Improving our basic understanding of the earth-climate system as well as key elements related to impacts, vulnerabilities, and response measures have to be key objectives of such a programme. The ultimate goal was to empower Europe with the necessary science-based knowledge in order to better manage the risks and opportunities of Climate Change.

CIRCLE-2 ERA-Net applied such experience through an enlarged partnership that builds upon the results, preparatory work and lessons learnt during previous coordinating actions.
This critical mass in terms of CCIVA research funders and managers accounted for more than 25 programmes and is estimated to total around 200 Million EURO annually dedicated to Climate Change Impact, Vulnerability and Adaptation research.

Most of the European Union’s pertinent CCIVA research owning and/or managing institutions were gathered in CIRCLE-2. Each of the programmes fulfils an essential role in its national research system and research strategy with the same being true for the participating organisations.

This effort resulted in an improvement of the common knowledge base which is needed for a coherent (re)design of European and national Climate Change adaptation strategies.
Furthermore, CIRCLE-2 played a major role in the development of Joint Programming Initiatives in Europe, most notably those related to Environmental and Climate Change Issues, such as the JPI Climate.

Climate Change Impact, Vulnerability and Adaptation are among the areas of highest common strategic interest. Scientifically sound knowledge is needed about impacts that are likely to occur and the associated risks. The deduction of the most suitable measures to cope with them will be a prerequisite for the preparation of adaptation regimes and their on-going improvement to save human lives, protect human welfare, reduce public spending, and for environmental protection in general.

List of Websites:
Tiago Capela Lourenço
University of Lisbon
Foundation Faculty of Sciences
Ed. C8, sala 8.5.14
Campo Grande
1749-016 Lisboa
Portugal

www.circle-era.eu