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Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-jet Nozzle

Final Report Summary - ACHEON (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-jet Nozzle)

Executive Summary:
ACHEON PROJECT has been a great success. It has reached an ample set of high level results:
• It has demonstrated the feasibility of the system in subsonic conditions;
• It has overcome initial problems derived by swirl components;
• It has allowed effective modeling of the Coanda Effect;
• It has allowed modeling of the Coanda effect in a nozzle with two streams;
• It has produced a clear and successful simulation of applicability on aircrafts, relating to commuter class and UAS scale.
The preliminary analysis has been performed, and the terms defining modeling and simulation aspects have become more concrete, and their influence for defining the experimental setup and the related equipment has been successful. The Technology Evaluation has produced a detailed verification of ACHEON’s technology against both traditional and innovative future aircraft configurations. The key objective has been the demonstration of the advantages that the ACHEON advanced propulsive concept in all aspects of the aircrafts operations and its environmental impact. It has been also verified how ACHEON performs under the various operating regimes that current and future aircraft will encounter.
This will include environmental issues such as operation in snow, rain, sand and dust as well as FOD. Safety is also a consideration, current twin aircraft have exceptional safety records that can be met or bettered by ACHEON.
Up to 45 deg of deflection has been obtained in subsonic condition even in presence of swirl (using simplified testing conditions). This encouraging results has allowed a certain degree of confidence through applications on different aircraft types.

Project Context and Objectives:
The project has started from an initial patent by UNIMORE:
• Baffigi F., Dumas A., Giuliani I., Madonia M., and Trancossi M., "Ugello capace di deviare in modo dinamico e controllabile un getto sintetico senza parti meccaniche in movimento e relativo sistema di controllo", Patent IT 0001406404, Deposito RE2011A000049, Filling date July 01, 2011, Publication date September 30, 2011, approved on February 21, 2014.
• Baffigi F., Dumas A., Giuliani I., Madonia M., and Trancossi M., (2014), "Nozzle capable of deviating a synthetic jet in a dynamic and controllable manner with no moving mechanical parts and a control system thereof", PTC Patent WO2013005132 A1, Publication date Jan 10, 2013, Filing date Jun 25, 2012, Priority date Jul 1, 2011, Published also as EP2726213A1, US20140191059.
The patent has defined a nozzle capable of orienting a synthetic jet created by two incoming streams. Coupling it with dielectric barrier discharge systems, as the one studied at UBI, it can be possible to produce a better regulation of the deflection angle.
• Páscoa, J.C. Brójo F. M. P., and Monteiro J. M. M., "Numerical Simulation of Magneto-plasma Thrusters for Aerospace Propulsion Using and MHD Formulation", Paper O-7.2 Proc. 14th International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems, Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, 6 pgs, 2009.
A preliminary analysis and modeling phase has been necessary for producing an accurate presentation of the system and a develop a preliminary model the system.
• Trancossi, M., “An Overview Of Scientific And Technical Literature On Coanda Effect Applied To Nozzles”, SAE Technical Papers N. 2011-01-2591, Issn 0148-7191, 2011;
• Trancossi, M., Dumas, A., “Coanda Syntetic Jet Deflection Apparatus And Control”, SAE Technical Papers N. 2011-01-2590, 2011.
• Trancossi, M., Dumas, A., (2011) “ACHEON: Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-Jet Nozzle ”, Sae Technical Papers N. 2011-01-2737, 2011.
• Dumas, A., Pascoa, J., Trancossi, M., Tacchini, A., Ilieva, G., and Madonia, M., "Acheon project: A novel vectoring jet concept", Proc. ASME. 45172; Volume 1: Advances in Aerospace Technology: 499-508, IMECE2012-87638, 2012.
• Trancossi, M., Dumas, A., and Vucinic, D., "Mathematical Modelling of Coanda Effect," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2195, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2195 2013.
The emergence of some problems due to instability near equilibrium position and due to dependence on the phenomena on how the swirl components sums has obliged to produce a deep scientific investigation to verify how it could be possible to overcome such problems and their real effects on the system.
This exigency has started a very deep investigation on the system, coupled by scientific experimental testing on simplified models. This effort has produced a very important series of results with an important scientific literature on the argument.
• Subhash, M. and Dumas, A., (2013) "Computational Study of Coanda Adhesion Over Curved Surface," SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 6(1):260-272, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2302.
• Trancossi M, Subhash M., Angeli D. Mathematical modelling of a two streams Coanda effect nozzle. ASME Int. Mech. Engg. Conf. and Exhibition, paper no. IMECE2013-63459; 2013.
• Trancossi, M., Dumas, A., Das, S. S., and Páscoa, J. C., "Design Methods of Coanda nozzle with two streams", INCAS Bulletin, Volume 6 (1), Pages 83-95, ISSN 2066-8201, doi: 10.13111/2066-8201.2014.6.1.8 2014
• Das, S.S. Abdollahzadeh, M., Pascoa, J. C., Dumas, A., and Trancossi, M.,"Numerical modelling of Coanda effect in a novel propulsive system", Int. Jnl. of Multiphysics, Volume 8 • Number 2, pp. 181-201, 2014.
The activity on DBD setup has continued producing very interesting results especially connected to the increase of it operative range.
• Xisto C, Páscoa J, and Oliveira P, "Modelling plasma flow on a self-field MPD thruster using a PISO based method", 44th AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference, San Diego, USA, 2013.
• Abdollahzadeh M., and Pascoa J., Modified Split-Potential Model for Modelling the Effect of DBD Plasma Actuators in High Altitude Flow, Control Current Applied Physics, 2014.
• Abdollahzadeh, M., Páscoa J.C. and Oliveira P.J. "Two-dimensional numerical modelling of interaction of micro-shock wave generated by nanosecond plasma actuators and transonic flow", Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Volume 270, pp. 401-416, 2014.
It has been verified that thermal effect can be encouraged by thermal effects verifyng that positive temperature gradient between the fluid and wall produces positive effects and a negative one produces negative ones:
• Dumas, A., Subhash, M., Trancossi, M., and Marques, J.P. "The influence of surface temperature on Coanda effect", Energy Procedia Vol. 45, pp. 626-634, 2014.
This activity has demonstrated that also simple honeycomb panel could ensure swirl reduction (that means a good and affordable behavior of the system). This results has produced a new bidirectional DBD architecture which has been defined at UBI, and is currently under study. Such a component allows a two way governing allowing generating a positive ionic wind direction directed with the jet and also a negative one countercurrent.
On the other side two minor aspects has been examined with the effort of characterizing ACHEON as an effective propulsive system for the al electric aircraft of tomorrow. This analysis has both produced ana analysis related to the design of the inlet of a ducted fan in the low speed domain in order to verify what design strategies could be setup to make it competitive against traditional external propellers.
• Trancossi, M. and Madonia, M., "The Efficiency of an Electric Turbofan vs. Inlet Area: A Simple Mathematical Model and CFD Simulations," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-2217, 2012.
The increase of Coanda adhesion with a positive gradient of temperature between fluid and Coanda surface has forced to a preliminary study about the possible methods for heating a fluid flow. This evolution of the project has produced an innovative cogeneration propulsion architecture up to a patent.
• Trancossi, M. and Pascoa, J., "Thermojet: An Old Idea Can Define a Novel Family of Jets", SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2205, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2205.
• Trancossi, M., Dumas, A., Stewart, P., and Vucinic, D., "Increasing Aeronautic Electric Propulsion Performances by Cogeneration and Heat Recovery," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2106, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2106 2014.
• Dumas, A., Niccolai, G., Trancossi M., and Vucinic, D., "Aeromobile con prestazioni incrementate mediante sistema di propulsione cogenerativo", IT Patent request n. RE2014A000022, 2014.
A very positive report by EPA has verified that ACHEON necessities has been the occasion for an innovative cogeneration propulsion system which allow producing more thrust than any other with same electrical power.
The second direction of study during the project has been concentrated on the analysis on how ACHEON could be implemented on aircrafts.
• Pascoa, J. C., Dumas, A., Trancossi, M., Stewart, P., and Vucinic, D., "A review of thrust-vectoring in support of a V/STOL non-moving mechanical propulsion system" Cent. Eur. J. Eng., 3(3), pp. 374-388, (2013).
• Suñol, A. and Vucinic D., (2014) "Numerical analysis and UAV application of the ACHEON vectorial thrust nozzle", 32nd AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference. June 2014. doi: 10.2514/6.2014-2046.
• Cen Z., Smith T., Stewart P., and Stewart J, "Integrated flight/thrust vectoring control for jet-powered unmanned aerial vehicles with ACHEON propulsion", Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering 0954410014544179, first published on July 29, 2014, doi:10.1177/0954410014544179.
• Trancossi, M., Dumas, A., Angeli, D., Bingham, C., Das, S. S:, Grimaccia, F., Madonia, M., Pascoa Marques, J., Porreca, E., Smith, T., Stewart, P. Subhash M., Sunol, A. Vucinic, D., "A new aircraft architecture based on ACHEON Coanda effect nozzle", Central European Journal of Engineering, Under review.
Various aircraft have been studied with the aim of identifying three different application areas and their associated state of the art. The three classes identified are MAV’s/UAV’s, STOL high wing commuters and traditional low wing commuters. ACHEON implementation has been modeled against the traditional propeller configuration. The choice of subsonic configurations has been caused because this configurations allows maximizing the advantages.

Project Results:
The project has started from an initial patent by UNIMORE:
• Baffigi F., Dumas A., Giuliani I., Madonia M., and Trancossi M., "Ugello capace di deviare in modo dinamico e controllabile un getto sintetico senza parti meccaniche in movimento e relativo sistema di controllo", Patent IT 0001406404, Deposito RE2011A000049, Filling date July 01, 2011, Publication date September 30, 2011, approved on February 21, 2014.
• Baffigi F., Dumas A., Giuliani I., Madonia M., and Trancossi M., (2014), "Nozzle capable of deviating a synthetic jet in a dynamic and controllable manner with no moving mechanical parts and a control system thereof", PTC Patent WO2013005132 A1, Publication date Jan 10, 2013, Filing date Jun 25, 2012, Priority date Jul 1, 2011, Published also as EP2726213A1, US20140191059.
The patent has defined a nozzle capable of orienting a synthetic jet created by two incoming streams. Coupling it with dielectric barrier discharge systems, as the one studied at UBI, it can be possible to produce a better regulation of the deflection angle.
• Páscoa, J.C. Brójo F. M. P., and Monteiro J. M. M., "Numerical Simulation of Magneto-plasma Thrusters for Aerospace Propulsion Using and MHD Formulation", Paper O-7.2 Proc. 14th International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems, Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, 6 pgs, 2009.
A preliminary analysis and modeling phase has been necessary for producing an accurate presentation of the system and a develop a preliminary model the system.
• Trancossi, M., “An Overview Of Scientific And Technical Literature On Coanda Effect Applied To Nozzles”, SAE Technical Papers N. 2011-01-2591, Issn 0148-7191, 2011;
• Trancossi, M., Dumas, A., “Coanda Syntetic Jet Deflection Apparatus And Control”, SAE Technical Papers N. 2011-01-2590, 2011.
• Trancossi, M., Dumas, A., (2011) “ACHEON: Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-Jet Nozzle ”, Sae Technical Papers N. 2011-01-2737, 2011.
• Dumas, A., Pascoa, J., Trancossi, M., Tacchini, A., Ilieva, G., and Madonia, M., "Acheon project: A novel vectoring jet concept", Proc. ASME. 45172; Volume 1: Advances in Aerospace Technology: 499-508, IMECE2012-87638, 2012.
• Trancossi, M., Dumas, A., and Vucinic, D., "Mathematical Modelling of Coanda Effect," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2195, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2195 2013.
The emergence of some problems due to instability near equilibrium position and due to dependence on the phenomena on how the swirl components sums has obliged to produce a deep scientific investigation to verify how it could be possible to overcome such problems and their real effects on the system.
This exigency has started a very deep investigation on the system, coupled by scientific experimental testing on simplified models. This effort has produced a very important series of results with an important scientific literature on the argument.
• Subhash, M. and Dumas, A., (2013) "Computational Study of Coanda Adhesion Over Curved Surface," SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 6(1):260-272, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2302.
• Trancossi M, Subhash M., Angeli D. Mathematical modelling of a two streams Coanda effect nozzle. ASME Int. Mech. Engg. Conf. and Exhibition, paper no. IMECE2013-63459; 2013.
• Trancossi, M., Dumas, A., Das, S. S., and Páscoa, J. C., "Design Methods of Coanda nozzle with two streams", INCAS Bulletin, Volume 6 (1), Pages 83-95, ISSN 2066-8201, doi: 10.13111/2066-8201.2014.6.1.8 2014
• Das, S.S. Abdollahzadeh, M., Pascoa, J. C., Dumas, A., and Trancossi, M.,"Numerical modelling of Coanda effect in a novel propulsive system", Int. Jnl. of Multiphysics, Volume 8 • Number 2, pp. 181-201, 2014.
The activity on DBD setup has continued producing very interesting results especially connected to the increase of it operative range.
• Xisto C, Páscoa J, and Oliveira P, "Modelling plasma flow on a self-field MPD thruster using a PISO based method", 44th AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference, San Diego, USA, 2013.
• Abdollahzadeh M., and Pascoa J., Modified Split-Potential Model for Modelling the Effect of DBD Plasma Actuators in High Altitude Flow, Control Current Applied Physics, 2014.
• Abdollahzadeh, M., Páscoa J.C. and Oliveira P.J. "Two-dimensional numerical modelling of interaction of micro-shock wave generated by nanosecond plasma actuators and transonic flow", Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Volume 270, pp. 401-416, 2014.
It has been verified that thermal effect can be encouraged by thermal effects verifyng that positive temperature gradient between the fluid and wall produces positive effects and a negative one produces negative ones:
• Dumas, A., Subhash, M., Trancossi, M., and Marques, J.P. "The influence of surface temperature on Coanda effect", Energy Procedia Vol. 45, pp. 626-634, 2014.
This activity has demonstrated that also simple honeycomb panel could ensure swirl reduction (that means a good and affordable behavior of the system). This results has produced a new bidirectional DBD architecture which has been defined at UBI, and is currently under study. Such a component allows a two way governing allowing generating a positive ionic wind direction directed with the jet and also a negative one countercurrent.
On the other side two minor aspects has been examined with the effort of characterizing ACHEON as an effective propulsive system for the al electric aircraft of tomorrow. This analysis has both produced ana analysis related to the design of the inlet of a ducted fan in the low speed domain in order to verify what design strategies could be setup to make it competitive against traditional external propellers.
• Trancossi, M. and Madonia, M., "The Efficiency of an Electric Turbofan vs. Inlet Area: A Simple Mathematical Model and CFD Simulations," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-2217, 2012.
The increase of Coanda adhesion with a positive gradient of temperature between fluid and Coanda surface has forced to a preliminary study about the possible methods for heating a fluid flow. This evolution of the project has produced an innovative cogeneration propulsion architecture up to a patent.
• Trancossi, M. and Pascoa, J., "Thermojet: An Old Idea Can Define a Novel Family of Jets", SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2205, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2205.
• Trancossi, M., Dumas, A., Stewart, P., and Vucinic, D., "Increasing Aeronautic Electric Propulsion Performances by Cogeneration and Heat Recovery," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2106, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2106 2014.
• Dumas, A., Niccolai, G., Trancossi M., and Vucinic, D., "Aeromobile con prestazioni incrementate mediante sistema di propulsione cogenerativo", IT Patent request n. RE2014A000022, 2014.
A very positive report by EPA has verified that ACHEON necessities has been the occasion for an innovative cogeneration propulsion system which allow producing more thrust than any other with same electrical power.
The second direction of study during the project has been concentrated on the analysis on how ACHEON could be implemented on aircrafts.
• Pascoa, J. C., Dumas, A., Trancossi, M., Stewart, P., and Vucinic, D., "A review of thrust-vectoring in support of a V/STOL non-moving mechanical propulsion system" Cent. Eur. J. Eng., 3(3), pp. 374-388, (2013).
• Suñol, A. and Vucinic D., (2014) "Numerical analysis and UAV application of the ACHEON vectorial thrust nozzle", 32nd AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference. June 2014. doi: 10.2514/6.2014-2046.
• Cen Z., Smith T., Stewart P., and Stewart J, "Integrated flight/thrust vectoring control for jet-powered unmanned aerial vehicles with ACHEON propulsion", Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering 0954410014544179, first published on July 29, 2014, doi:10.1177/0954410014544179.
• Trancossi, M., Dumas, A., Angeli, D., Bingham, C., Das, S. S:, Grimaccia, F., Madonia, M., Pascoa Marques, J., Porreca, E., Smith, T., Stewart, P. Subhash M., Sunol, A. Vucinic, D., "A new aircraft architecture based on ACHEON Coanda effect nozzle", Central European Journal of Engineering, Under review.
Various aircraft have been studied with the aim of identifying three different application areas and their associated state of the art. The three classes identified are MAV’s/UAV’s, STOL high wing commuters and traditional low wing commuters. ACHEON implementation has been modeled against the traditional propeller configuration. The choice of subsonic configurations has been caused because this configurations allows maximizing the advantages.
Although ACHEON can be utilized with current aircraft technologies its true advantage will be realized as an enabling technology for the All Electric Aircraft as originally foreseen by Cronin et al. As a purely electric technology there is no need for high temperature materials allowing the exploitation of lighter materials with improved performance and tolerance to future environmental effects such as volcanic ash and high altitude ice ingestion.
Work has focused on novel twin spool electrically powered axial compressors and the necessary control systems to regulate the two mass flow rates into the nozzle. Consideration is also being given to the arrangement of any intermediate plenum stage and particle separation. Simulations has been performed on twin spool aircraft has considered. Old fashioned architectures has been considered as a means of providing important reference data through future development. This will provide the basis for the future work where various configurations, both traditional and novel, are evaluated to determine the economic and technical advantages. Obtained results has clearly demonstrated the feasibility of the system and its potential integration.
Different models has been studied.
One of the best airplanes ever realized by the European Aircraft industry was the Dornier Do 28D Skyservant, an extraordinary STOL light utility aircraft with the capability to carry up to 13 passengers. It has been a simple and rugged aircraft capable also of operating under arduous conditions and very easy and simple maintenance.
The architecture of this airplane, which has operated actively for more than 20 years, is very interesting analyzing the implementation of a new propulsion system because of the unusual incorporation of two engines, as well as the two main landing gear shock struts of the faired main landing gear attached to short pylons on either side of the forward fuselage. This unconventional design allows an easy implementation of different propulsion units, such as the history of different experimental versions allowed.
The preliminary definition of an increased performance cogeneration system for optimizing the energy efficiency and maximizing the thrust of ducted fan propeller has produced. It then produces an effective design of the ACHEON nozzle for such an aircraft, the definition of the optimal positioning for stability and efficiency. In conclusion, it analyses the expected performances of the resulting aircraft architecture.
Outstanding results allows verifying an effective possibility of implementing the ACHEON Coanda effect thrust and vector propulsion system on real aircraft.
The paper has evaluated summarily the possibility of applying the ACHEON propulsion system to a Dornier Do 28 D2. The outstanding results in terms of landing space and the verification of compatibility in terms of produced thrust allows reducing of more than 50% the needs in terms of landing and takeoff space.
After these results, a preliminary redesign activity has started in order to define a more actual aircraft design and use of composite in substitution of at least 30% of the aircraft structure with a reduction in terms of weight of about 20%.
The loss of weight by ACHEON propulsion units has estimated in about 300 kg. Composite elements substitution will give a reduction about 350 kg. It is then possible to evaluate max combustible mass in 710 kg. It means that a mass about 1360 kg could be disposable.
An effective evaluation about installing a cogeneration unit can be possible. Assuming to use a Rolls Royce RR500 Turboprop based cogeneration unit, which ensures good performances (Dry weight: 102 kg, Maximum continuous Power 300 kW; Normal power 260 kW, Fuel consumption: Max continuous 117.8 kg/hour; Normal: 107.48 kg/hour).
This turbine has a fuel efficiency about 38% and then 62% of the thermal energy is dissipated. Assuming an exhaust heat recovery unit it can be recovered about 80% of the heat by a cross flow heat exchanger. The heat recovered by a solution of water and glycol can be used for heating the honeycomb section of the ACHEON Nozzle.
Considering thermal exchange, it is possible to make a reasonable hypothesis of ceasing to the air almost the same amount of energy that generates electric production. It means about 260 kWt. at a temperature of about 120 °C.
Calculating the efficiency of the system, an average efficiency of the exchanger can be assumed about 50%. It is characterized by an external chamber, in which hot water flows and exchanges with the internal metallic honeycomb structure, which is used for reducing the swirl component of the flow.
In conclusion, the actual even if preliminary stage of design demonstrate that the possibility of equipping a Dornier Do-28D2 by ACHEON propulsion with large benefits in terms of takeoff space, landing space, climbing rate and descent rate.
In addition a study on the Architecture of CESSNA 402 has been realized.
It clearly demonstrates the benefits of the ACHEON nozzle applied to the propulsion of a commuter class transport twin-engine aircraft. The choice has been focused on the Cessna 402 aircraft because its geometric conformation, which could easily allow a positioning of the ACHEON nozzle with centre of thrust almost coincident with centre of mass. The basic control equations of an aircraft has produced with this singularity showing the benefits of variable direction thrust applied in this position.
For simplicity three only positions has been considered, because they seems the state that can be easily produced at this level of research activity. They are full thrust (two fans on) with an angle t of inclination (with t comprised between 0° and 15 °. A nozzle with opening equal to t so that two extreme positions could be stabile:
• 0° for horizontal flight, with higher jet near 100% ant the other below 50%.
• 2t for takeoff operations to sustain the airplane during operations with lower jet about 100% and lower below 50%.
Kinematic and dynamic main parameters has been estimated during critical operations such as takeoff and landing verifying the benefits produced by the ACHEON nozzle in different flight condition. It appears fundamental, even if not directly presented in the paper, the importance of DBD to ensure an effective governable transition between the positions to avoid both too fast modifications of the airplane behaviour with potential stability problems and the actual considered capacity of producing thrust in three well-defined directions.
In particular, further application could benefit of the preliminary definition of a possible single jet architecture, which aims to reduce the problems derived from high frontal section required by the dual jet configuration.
A preliminary airplane configuration equipped by high performance batteries has also defined.
Energetic evaluations has been performed demonstrating clearly the advantages of the proposed all electric system because of much higher energy conversion efficiency and because of the possibility, which has been presented to define a cogeneration airplane architecture equipped by a Rolls-Royce Model 250 turboprop based cogeneration unit. The large disposability in terms of heat to be dispersed could ensure the possibility of producing a more effective propulsion effect by using them to heat the jets produced by the ducted fans.
The clear advantages of the cogeneration based solution against the battery only one is evident demonstrating the possibility of an effective applicability of ACHEON all electric propulsion in the future, with a cogeneration based propulsion architecture.
In conclusion, demonstrates the benefits of ACHEON based architecture to civil aircrafts ensuring adequate performances. Even if it is not still sufficient for future ACHEON equipped aircrafts it is a preliminary basis for continuing the studies on ACHEON thought a novel class of all electrical high performance aircrafts, which could not been thought before this revolutionary project.
Results have been really promising allowing:
• good energetic advantage due to increased efficiency (if the inlet section is correctly dimensioned) according to the guidelines studied by Trancossi and Pascoa during the project);
• reduction of stall speed;
• reduction of take off and landing space (50% or more).
The implementation on a jet configuration has demonstrated instead the possibility of an effective and very large increase in terms of maneuverability. This system has allowed demonstrating the possibility of a novel class of high maneuverability airplanes.
The implementation on a UAS architecture, based on the Nimbus original configuration has aloso allowed producing an effective result of a UAS that can takeoff and land in about 12 m with a mass of 4.5 kg and cruise as low as 8-12 m/s (but even lower) opening novel frontiers for low speed UAS.
This UAS concept has been named MURALS (acronym of Multifunctional Unmanned Reconnaissance Aircraft for Low-speed and STOL operation) which has been studied by joint activity of the member of the project.
This aerial vehicle concept envisages and develops a previous concept of an innovative single seat jet developed by Aeritalia and Alfredo Capuani, making it suitable for ACHEON based propulsion. In a first embodiment, the aircraft according to the invention has a conventional form with a single fuselage and its primary objective is to minimize the variation of the pitching moment allowing low speed operations.
Main objective of the airplane is to allow control by mobile surfaces in the front canard and in the large wing. This plane has been specifically designed to flight at low velocities with a very high angle of attach without loosing in terms of agility.
The resulting airplane concept is specifically designed for road monitoring, and police support and is characterized. The results define an optimal sizing of the aircraft together with an effective performance analysis, which allows identifying the strong points and the potential problems of the project. An effective energy analysis has been performed also.
According to the above defined models and components it is possible to start an effective evaluation of the performances. The main coefficients have been defined by Capuani and Sunol and Vucinic: CDmax = 0.1 (at takeoff), CDmin 0.035 CLmax=3.0 CLmin=1, AR=5, L/D = 10, and friction c0efficient with ground 0.05.
Takeoff performances are acceptable. Assuming an angle of attack of 7.5° and an angle of the fuselage and thrust 7.5°, making the hypothesis of max thrust, Vstall is about 9 m/s and assuming a speed Vtakeoff = 10.65 a complete takeoff length about 12 m, and a run of less than an acceleration of 3 m/s.
Climbing it can be effectuated a climb with an angle of 20° about and a speed about 14 m/s with angle of attack 7.5. Thrust is oriented upward wit an angle of 15°. It requires 2 ducted fan units with thrust oriented up and an angle of attach about 7.5°.
Cruise can be ensured also at low speed about 1012 m/s with opportune lift. Assuming a cruise speed of 25 m /s at min drag (about 1), it can be possible to estimate energy consumption.
Landing space results less than 12 m.
Assuming a reserve about 30%, it is possible to estimate more than 1-hour flight with selected batteries.
A precise design methodology for an innovative airplane based on the ACHEON propulsion system and based on the innovative MURALS configuration has been defined. .
Starting from methodological results an effective design activity will be produced taking into account the preliminary statements. After considering results from conceptual design, some important conclusions were drawn.
The proposed airplane architecture is very interesting for low speed operations and short take off and landing. The results show clearly that the designed aircraft meets the predefined objectives.
The weight of the overall structure of about 6 kg is acceptable however. It can be reduced by improving the design. This reduction will produce a further increase of the performances.
The airplane could be also improved considering a carbon fibre structure instead of the considered foam, both in terms of structural loads and in terms of better performances and accuracy of components, with a consequent reduction of weights.
The best wing loading can be achieved by carefully consider the aspect ratio of the main wing. A better wing loading can be achieved by carefully designing the fuselage profile.
Jet deflection studies performed in ACHEON project can affect dramatically novel concepts of aircraft vehicle design (both manned and unmanned) with enhanced manoeuvrability without moving parts resulting in energy savings and maintenance advantages.
Radical new concept of aircrafts can be joined to jet vectoring study to improve comfort, manoeuvrability and energy efficiency. Flight control without mobile parts and tails for light UAV segment cannot be reached without a full comprehension of directional control of propulsive jets.
From a market point of view, the ACHEON project applied to the UAS sector can make available novel platforms in terms of size, architecture and control system. This feasibility study of propulsive thrust vectoring can be integrated in the pre-design phase of new UAV concepts to enhance manoeuvrability and open up radical new product families.
With some further improvements, it can safely take off and land over a 40 ft container making it ideal for escort missions, civil protection and police fast intervention on roads, but also for many military missions.


Jet deflection systems are important in enabling novel concepts of air vehicle design with enhanced performance, manoeuvrability and shorter and safer take-off and landing to be realised. They will allow the exploration of radical new concepts of aerial vehicle design realising advanced concepts which have been previously postulated throughout the history of aviation but could not be realised because of the lack of an effective and affordable jet vectoring system.
ACHEON (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-jet Nozzle) explores the feasibility of a novel propulsive system for aircraft, which is expected to overcome the main limitations of traditional systems related to typical jet deflection systems. It aims to verify a novel propulsive system, which can be the fundamental element of future breakthrough innovation in air transport involving propulsion including costs and propulsion.
ACHEON has investigated a novel way to orient the propulsive force, without having the need for moving elements. The results has been achieved by exploiting the Coanda effect, which diverges the air jet. In addition, such air jet diverging process has improved by incorporating the boundary layer plasma actuators. The consortium has validated CFD simulations by limited and focused experiments. These CFD simulations has been experimentally validated with high quality measurements and one of them is involving the PIV fluid flow field measurements.
The work performed followed 3 main directions:
- The basic Coanda effect to be fully realized:
- To find parametric geometrical shapes in order to enable efficient deviation of the stream jet,
- More importantly, to achieve the adequate strength and orientation angle of the thrust force - find out the flow regimes at which this is accomplished,
- To investigate the boundary layer with related turbulence models, where CFD results will be validated experimentally.
- To research the boundary layer control using a plasma actuator, based on the Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) phenomena, and to find how much DBD can be exploited to achieve higher deviation of streams.
2) ACHEON based propulsion for UAV-s is considered for experimental testing, and it is in discussion:
- Aerodynamically adapted ACHEON propulsion unit to be designed for the selected UAV model,
- Wind tunnel tests might be performed for proving such complex UAV solution.
3) Radio Controlled model to show effectively testing of the ACHEON solution
- Virtual mock-up of the flight animation (like flight simulator)
- Physical radio controlled model (for example, like a scaled down flight experiment)
- To study interference between the radio-controlled unit and the envisaged plasma actuator unit.

Full Mathemaical models, with increased suitability both of Coanda effect and of the specific problems has been produced. These models has been deeply verified. according to the above models.
The project has also provvided exhaustive samples of aircraft intergation with difrferent competive models.

The preliminary analysis has been performed, and the terms defining modeling and simulation aspects have become more concrete, and their influence for defining the experimental setup and the related equipment has been successful. The purpose of the Technology Evaluation, has been a detailed verification of ACHEON’s technology against both traditional and innovative future aircraft configurations. The key objective has been focused on the advantages that the ACHEON technology brings with its advanced propulsive concept in all aspects of the aircrafts operations and its environmental impact. It is also an objective to consider how ACHEON performs under the various operating regimes that current and future aircraft will encounter.
This will include environmental issues such as operation in snow, rain, sand and dust as well as FOD. Safety is also a consideration, current twin aircraft have exceptional safety records that must be met or bettered by ACHEON.
In this, the first phase of the study, various aircraft types have been studied with the aim of identifying three different application areas and their associated state of the art. The three classes identified are MAV’s/UAV’s, Military VTOL Fast Jets and Medium Transport Aircraft. A study of historic and current aircraft was conducted including the many early VTOL experimental aircraft from the 50’s and 60’s. Some of these were truly innovative and in many cases were not realizable due to the technological limits of the day. They do however provide some truly innovative solutions by challenging the accepted norm.
Although ACHEON can be utilized with current jet technologies its true advantage will be realized as an enabling technology for the All Electric Aircraft as originally foreseen by Cronin et al. As a purely electric technology there is no need for high temperature materials allowing the exploitation of lighter materials with improved performance and tolerance to future environmental effects such as volcanic ash and high altitude ice ingestion.
The current work is now focusing on novel twin spool electrically powered axial compressors and the necessary control systems to regulate the two mass flow rates into the nozzle. Consideration is also being given to the arrangement of any intermediate plenum stage and particle separation. A small twin spool demonstrator is being considered as a means of providing important calibration data for the models. This will provide the basis for the future work where various configurations, both traditional and novel, are evaluated to determine the economic and technical advantages. Obtained results has clearly demonstrated the feasibility of the system and its potential integration.
One of the best airplanes ever realized by the European Aircraft industry was the Dornier Do 28D Skyservant, an extraordinary STOL light utility aircraft with the capability to carry up to 13 passengers. It has been a simple and rugged aircraft capable also of operating under arduous conditions and very easy and simple maintenance.
The architecture of this airplane, which has operated actively for more than 20 years, is very interesting analyzing the implementation of a new propulsion system because of the unusual incorporation of two engines, as well as the two main landing gear shock struts of the faired main landing gear attached to short pylons on either side of the forward fuselage. This unconventional design allows an easy implementation of different propulsion units, such as the history of different experimental versions allowed.
Following images presents the preliminary definition of an increased performance cogeneration system for optimizing the energy efficiency and maximizing the thrust of ducted fan propeller. It then produces an effective design of the ACHEON nozzle for such an aircraft, the definition of the optimal positioning for stability and efficiency. In conclusion, it analyses the expected performances of the resulting aircraft architecture.
Outstanding results allows verifying an effective possibility of implementing the ACHEON Coanda effect thrust and vector propulsion system on real aircraft.
The paper has evaluated summarily the possibility of applying the ACHEON propulsion system to a Dornier Do 28 D2. The outstanding results in terms of landing space and the verification of compatibility in terms of produced thrust allows reducing of more than 50% the needs in terms of landing and takeoff space.
After these results, a preliminary redesign activity has started in order to define a more actual aircraft design and use of composite in substitution of at least 30% of the aircraft structure with a reduction in terms of weight of about 20% [63].
The preliminary results of this redesign activity have been presented in Figure 20, 21 and 22.
The loss of weight by ACHEON propulsion units and reduction of weight will be estimated in about 300 kg, The composite elements substitution will give a reduction about 350 kg . It is then possible to evaluate max combustible mass in 710 kg. It means that a mass about 1360 kg could be disposable.
An effective evaluation about installing a cogeneration unit can be possible. Assuming to use a Rolls Royce RR500 Turboprop based cogeneration unit, which ensures good performances (Dry weight: 102 kg, Maximum continuous Power 300 kW; Normal power 260 kW, Fuel consumption: Max continuous 117.8 kg/hour; Normal: 107.48 kg/hour).
This turbine has a fuel efficiency about 38% and then 62% of the thermal energy is dissipated. Assuming an exhaust heat recovery unit it can be recovered about 80% of the heat by a cross flow heat ex-changer. The heat recovered by a solution of water and glycol can be used for heating the honeycomb section of the ACHEON Nozzle.
Considering the thermal exchange modelsit is possible to make a reasonable hypothesis of ceasing to the air almost the same amount of energy that generates electric production. It means about 260 kWt. at a temperature of about 120 °C.
Calculating the efficiency of the system by considering the following heat exchange model (Figure 23) an average efficiency of the exchanger can be assumed about 50%. It is characterized by an external chamber, in which hot water flows and exchanges with the internal metallic honeycomb structure, which is used for reducing the swirl component of the flow.
In conclusion, the actual even if preliminary stage of design demonstrate that the possibility of equipping a Dornier Do-28D2 by ACHEON propulsion with large benefits in terms of takeoff space, landing space, climbing rate and descent rate.
In addition a study on the Architecture of CESSNA 402 has been realized.
It clearly demonstrates the benefits of the ACHEON nozzle applied to the propulsion of a commuter class transport twin-engine aircraft. The choice has been focused on the Cessna 402 aircraft because its geometric conformation, which could easily allow a positioning of the ACHEON nozzle with centre of thrust almost coincident with centre of mass. The basic control equations of an aircraft has produced with this singularity showing the benefits of variable direction thrust applied in this position.
For simplicity three only positions has been considered, because they seems the state that can be easily produced at this level of research activity. They are full thrust (two fans on) with an angle t of inclination (with t comprised between 0° and 15 °. A nozzle with opening equal to t so that two extreme positions could be stabile:
• 0° for horizontal flight, with higher jet near 100% ant the other below 50%.
• 2t for takeoff operations to sustain the airplane during operations with lower jet about 100% and lower below 50%.
Kinematic and dynamic main parameters has been estimated during critical operations such as takeoff and landing verifying the benefits produced by the ACHEON nozzle in different flight condition. It appears fundamental, even if not directly presented in the paper, the importance of DBD to ensure an effective governable transition between the positions to avoid both too fast modifications of the airplane behaviour with potential stability problems and the actual considered capacity of producing thrust in three well-defined directions.
In particular, further application could benefit of the preliminary definition of a possible single jet architecture, which aims to reduce the problems derived from high frontal section required by the dual jet configuration.
A preliminary airplane configuration equipped by high performance batteries is presented.
Energetic evaluations has been performed demonstrating clearly the advantages of the proposed all electric system because of much higher energy conversion efficiency and because of the possibility, which has been presented to define a cogeneration airplane architecture equipped by a Rolls-Royce Model 250 turboprop based cogeneration unit. The large disposability in terms of heat to be dispersed could ensure the possibility of producing a more effective propulsion effect by using them to heat the jets produced by the ducted fans.
The clear advantages of the cogeneration based solution against the battery only one is evident demonstrating the possibility of an effective applicability of ACHEON all electric propulsion in the future, with a cogeneration based propulsion architecture.
In conclusion, demonstrates the benefits of ACHEON based architecture to civil aircrafts ensuring adequate performances. Even if it is not still sufficient for future ACHEON equipped aircrafts it is a preliminary basis for continuing the studies on ACHEON thought a novel class of all electrical high performance aircrafts, which could not been thought before this revolutionary project.

Potential Impact:
The ACHEON project defines a vector jet system for aerial propulsion, which needs feasibility evaluation, verification against technologies, analysis of opportunity and problem solving to avoid any possible cause that may delay or stop its effective service and to evaluate future research steps that may accelerate its time to market. ACHEON project aims to produce a deep investigation on multiple jet propulsion systems with vectoring capabilities by Coanda effect. It has been conceived by simplicity and is formed by a nozzle with different possible geometries characterized by two (or more for 3D applications) inlets realized by high speed fluid steams (of any nature) which produce a vectoring jet (and thrust). It can produce important advantages into aeronautic propulsion, controls, and greening. It can improve the performances of different aerial vehicles architectures both conventional and unconventional and in most advanced applications in can lead to fully electric propulsion systems with vectoring capabilities.
This innovative propulsion system with vectoring capabilities is conceived to enhance the performances of traditional aerial vehicles, such as reduction of takeoff and landing spaces and increase maneuverability, but it can also lead to explore novel aircraft concepts designed to maximize the positive effects generated by vectoring thrust, including VTOL, STOL and hovering capability similar to the helicopters.
ACHEON concept aims to enhance performances and safety of the aerial systems but also to explore novel possibilities and development concepts for the very long term. This architecture permits to enhance intrinsic safety of an aircraft because guarantee a most effective intervention of the propulsion system to avoid stall and crashes even in case of dangerous failures. A number of variants in the mode of operation are possible. Other step advancement related to vector propulsion will be analyzed in depth increasing both VTOL or STOL capability and reducing the necessity of soil consumption due to the airports.
FP7 Transport (including Aeronautics) 2012 Call aims at technological and operational advances and on the European transport policy, encourages integrated, safer, “greener” and “smarter” pan-European transport systems for the benefit of all citizens, society and climate policy, respecting the environment. It aims to securing and further developing the competitiveness attained by the European industries in the global market.
FP7 indicates the guidelines for the future air transport and defines truly innovative and radical solutions: novel propulsion and lifting concepts, new ideas for the interior space of airborne vehicles, new airport concepts, new systems of aircraft guidance and control, and prefigures alternative concepts of air transport system operations and integration with other transport modes.

ACHEON Project has produced a set of fundamental benefits on aircraft.
It can be clearly demonstrated that they involve different sectors:
- greening air transport;
- all electrical aircrafts;
- shortening take off and landing spaces;
- reducing energy consumption;
- reducing stall speed increasing system safety;
- increased maneuverability;
Its ideal range for preliminary application involves different aeronautic sectors with different timeframes:
- short term: it can apply to UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) creating a new class of unmanned aircraft that can perform both high speeds and very low speeds, lower than any other before (5 o 10 years);
- medium term: Commuter aircrafts class is particularly interesting for the application of this propulsion systems, because of weight/thrust ratio, which is particularly interesting for all electric propulsion or cogeneration one;
- Long term: larger aircrafts will require an adequate definition of new electrical drives for very high power/weight ratio and adequate performances in terms of rotation speed.
ACHEON’s results presents a set of important implications which can be the basis of a novel transport mode in the low speed transport sector (up to Mach 0.5). This category includes most of regional transport and most of military transport.
It has been clearly demonstrated that it is possible to overcome actual limits in air transport and to create a novel aerial transport concept taking benefit from vector trust, increasing performances of aircrafts, reducing operative costs and increasing the general capillarity of air transport because ACHEON propelled planes can take off and land also in short airport runway. It make possible the kick off a great challenge to create a new global transport network system more reliable and effective which can improve worldwide goods and people travelling operations.
The ACHEON Project concept aims to become a systematic and organic answer to the exigencies of future European transport defined in the Seventh Framework Programme:
a) Increasing Capacity
The increasing air transport demand is an opportunity for the European industry but brings new challenges with regard to innovative solutions which can produce environmental effects, safety, security and affordability, and increasing the capacity of the air transport system through standardized solution to simplify both air-traffic, passengers and goods management.
The capacity is competitive with traditional aerial transport and can be increased by shortening take off and landing spaces, which is a minor benefit of the ACHEON concept. It allows increasing the capillarity of air transport and the possibility for people and good to use air transport.
b) The greening of Air Transport
The green air transport concept encourages novel technologies to reduce the environmental impact of aviation and to cut off pollutant and greenhouse gasses emissions. The connected ‘Clean Sky’ Joint Technology Initiative aims to bring together European R&D stakeholders to develop a future ‘green’ air transport system.
ACHEON system is green by conception, because it is conceived to open the possibility of future electrical powered aerial vehicles, with high performances, maneuverability and safety. An example of static and dynamic vectoring by electrical propulsion involving this system have been already published and have been widely discussed inside the international scientific community. It also demonstrates that the study of an effectively green transport system could be possible in the Commuter aircraft class.
c) Protection of Aircraft and Passengers
An important research activity regards air transport protection measures such as preventing hostile actions and aircraft misuse, security measures in cabin and cockpit designs and automatic control, as well as security aspects of airspace management and airport operations.
The ACHEON project is conceived for the maximum intrinsic safety being able to avoid stall conditions and prevent crashes on the ground by its vectoring trust capabilities. It guarantees the maximum safety level for the for the future transport operations.
In particular the key results in this area regards directly regards the reduction of stall speed for most aircraft sizes. This result which has been achieved means increased safety even in very difficult conditions.
d) Improving cost efficiency
The definition of an innovative transport system for the citizens is necessary to guarantee future industrial competitiveness in global markets: the reduction of time-to-market, the development of novel methods for product development and the minimization of operational costs. Research is directed towards improving the whole business process, from conceptual design to product development, manufacturing and in-service operations, and integration of the supply chain.
ACHEON concept defines the possibility of novel transport systems, which can reduce the cost of transports and increase the moving capacity worldwide with an important reduction of costs in terms of cost for passenger and/or for ton, both in terms of system industrial costs and of operative ones. Coupling ACHEON with traditional propellers forces the definition of ducted fan propelled aircrafts with comparable performances.
e) Customer satisfaction and safety
EU FP7 encourages innovation to increase passenger choice, schedule flexibility, and reduce accident rates. Technologies will enable a wider choice of aircraft/engine configurations ranging from wide-body to small-size vehicles. Research will include the adaptation of airport and air traffic operations to 24-hour utilization at acceptable community noise levels.
The intrinsic safety of the system is success key of the system because ACHEON based aircrafts will have the capability to prevent by design deadly events such crashes on the ground. The guidelines to produce a future generation of effective and safe air transport system are one of the main objectives which are expected during the project evolution.
The advanced possibility of using electric propulsive systems will drastically reduce the acoustic impact of the air transport on the towns and human communities. The new concept aerial vehicles derived by this novel propulsion concept will increase STOL or VTOL capabilities of air transport systems and will increase the capillarity of air transport on the territory. This new philosophy will permit to the air transport to break the traditional access barrier constituted by noise and the necessity of long runaways. This new environmental friendly system will produce a reduced consumption of soil due to air transport together with the possibility of being more strictly integrated with urban transport existing infrastructures.
f) Increasing time efficiency
EU Institutions’ objectives are improvement of punctuality in all weather conditions and reduction of the time spent on airport procedures. The development and the implementation of the novel Air Traffic Management (ATM) system (in the context of the SESAR initiative) will integrate air, ground and space components, together with flow management and increased aircraft autonomy.
The ACHEON system has been studied to simplify air traffic management and the access to the air transport making it a part of the urban transport, and reducing the problems related to weather conditions by STOL or VTOL capabilities enhanced by this propulsive concept
Overall Impact
The results of the ACHEON Project are perfectly in line with the European ACARE Strategic Research Agenda (SRA-2) and Beyond Vision 2020 (Towards 2050) by defining an effective milestone of the long range aerial transport of the future. The main impact of the project will be to proof the feasibility of novel propulsion concept which may lead to future green electrical powered aircrafts. ACHEON Project is an important solution intended to bring about breakthrough innovation in European and global aerial transportation. ACHEON will lead to environmental friendly, low cost infrastructure, high capacity and flexible transport system and has the feasible potential of drastically improving the current situations, by offering a radical innovation of the air transport vehicles. It will produce a more capillary aerial transport system and yield much more effective organization of the aerial mobility, less congestion on air routes and air pollution, lower noise, reduced CO2 emissions and better accessibility and safety. The result will be a higher quality of living and an enhanced integration with the spatial and societal developments.
In summary, the ACHEON Project demonstrates:
1) Reduction of takeoff and landing spaces;
2) Reduction of Stall Speed;
3) Possible reduction of Velocity during operations
4) Silent landing and take-off operations;
5) Reduced consumption of soil;
Possibility of being implemented not only on innovative aircraft concepts, but also on very traditional ones;
6) an effective way for exploring full electric indirect jet propulsion;
7) Even iif it ha not been the main focous of the project it has clearly demonstrated that novel flight control and trajectories, such as the vector flight are possible.
The project is an innovative system and a pioneering idea. It will produce interesting consequences about innovation and relevant impact related to future industrial applications. It is important to notice that this propulsion system can present very interesting innovation if analyzed together with its own novel control system. It will simplify the control operations producing a novel generation of fully robotized autopilots. The ones listed before are only some of the expected innovation which will be produced by this project.
Recently, concern has been expressed on several public forums about retarding European competitiveness compared to the USA, in terms of technology and to Asia, both in terms of technology and production strength, respectively. Effective air transport industry and services is vital to European industries.
In addition, to this logistics aspect, from the point of view concerning electronics, communication, sensors, software, manufacturing technologies and sustainable technology solutions – novel safety systems provide ample work opportunities as well as a competitive edge in terms of air traffic operations.
The success of this project is expected to boost and create new opportunities.
The project is a pioneering idea in the aviation, as indicated by the topic. It aims to study a novel air transport concept and to verify its feasibility using either conventional or unconventional aircraft concepts.
Most important results relates to the fact that the system has been accurately modeling and models has produced very good accordance with CFD and experimental data. Potential showstoppers have been accurately analyzed and related problems solved.
It is notorious that industry presents resistance into implementing radical innovations into well consolidated products. This change it can be easier and really productive in the case that the innovation increases the performances, reduces the troubles and increase the comfort for the users.
The ACHEON’s results regard safety, comfort, efficiency, progress and sustainability. The promotion of this novel concept will be (probably) a slow and long term processes. These times could be reduced because of growing awareness industries of the necessity of introducing novel and advanced concepts which can look into product innovation to regain the leadership of the market in which they operate.
Thus we are entering the positive circle: decreasing price levels are increasing the number of improved functions purchased, enabling a higher level of comfort during flight. Furthermore, it can be argued that the number of devices and functions does not necessarily prove their positive impacts. This is true, indeed, that the maturity of aircraft market is sharply increasing concurrency and some countries are gaining market shares because of their ability to produce at lower prices.
In this situation it is necessary to accelerate the time to market of radical innovations which can change the market scenario based on very mature technologies with the competition which is going to be centered on price factor and less on characteristic or performances because most aircraft are aligning their performances and safety related contents. Fe directions of R&D and novel models will be oriented into two fundamental directions: more sustainable, safe and performing vehicles and infrastructures, but also to explore novel aerial concepts that can reduce by conception the production times reducing greatly delivery times. In both cases The ACHEON project could have disruptive effects on aircraft future architecture, permit to explore more efficient, safe and comfortable concepts but also to redesign aircrafts and reduce the industrial production times.
The novel systems, based on the ACHEON Concept could be able to optimize operations’ capability and performances, reducing or avoiding on board fossil fuels demand. These objectives will be achieved by propulsion and control system that will satisfy future user needs better than anyone before, leading minimize gradually energy demand by aircrafts, reducing takeoff and landing spaces, to increase aircraft maneuverability and to increment air transport capillarity.
The dissemination of results will be the main task for the project which has produced an important scientific literature. A massive use of dissemination through SAE international has allowed a continuous set of relationships with companies.
The communication of project results to a wide scientific community has been done via the presentation of papers during targeted conferences. The special sessions have been chosen as a means of disseminating the project results because most of the European stakeholders are attending the major worldwide conferences on Air Transport.
It is therefore very efficient to present the outcomes of the projects in these conferences. The Stakeholders will have direct access to these outcomes and thus the knowledge developed during the project will be widely disseminated.
To ensure the widest dissemination to the scientific community, the ACHEON partners have communicates the project results by participating and presenting papers in targeted European and International conferences and by publishing papers in relevant scientific journals.
The partners of the ACHEON project have take care to disseminate the project results to the relevant Stakeholders and to facilitate the transfer of knowledge from the scientific community towards the research users. This final part has presented some issues because the project the most relevant part of the consortium has been academic. The SAE intl. usage to promote the results has been a key factor of a successful dissemination and of a successful discussion with companies.
In 2015 SAE aerotech conference it has been obtained a Session Chairmanship of a COANDA project researcher in the UAS Propulsion and one in general aeronautics. It has been an important reason of success which has demonstrated clearly the interest on the project.

Project bibliography at the end of the project

1. Baffigi F., Dumas A., Giuliani I., Madonia M., and Trancossi M., (2014) "Ugello capace di deviare in modo dinamico e controllabile un getto sintetico senza parti meccaniche in movimento e relativo sistema di controllo", Patent IT 0001406404, Deposito RE2011A000049, Filling date July 01, 2011, Publication date September 30, 2011, approved on February 21, 2014.
2. Baffigi F., Dumas A., Giuliani I., Madonia M., and Trancossi M., (2014), "Nozzle capable of deviating a synthetic jet in a dynamic and controllable manner with no moving mechanical parts and a control system thereof", PTC Patent WO2013005132 A1, Publication date Jan 10, 2013, Filing date Jun 25, 2012, Priority date Jul 1, 2011, Published also as EP2726213A1, US20140191059
3. Cattafesta, L. N., and Sheplak, M., (2011) "Actuators for Active Flow Control" Volume 43, Issue 1: pp. 247-272
4. Páscoa, J.C. Brójo F. M. P., and Monteiro J. M. M., "Numerical Simulation of Magneto-plasma Thrusters for Aerospace Propulsion Using and MHD Formulation", Paper O-7.2 Proc. 14th International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems, Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, 6 pgs, 2009.
5. Trancossi, M., “An Overview Of Scientific And Technical Literature On Coanda Effect Applied To Nozzles”, SAE Technical Papers N. 2011-01-2591, 2011.
6. Drăgan V.: A New Mathematical Model for Coandă Effect Velocity Approximation. INCAS Bulletin, vol.4 pp.85–92, (2012).
7. Trancossi, M., Dumas, A., “Coanda Syntetic Jet Deflection Apparatus And Control”, SAE Technical Papers N. 2011-01-2590, 2011.
8. Trancossi, M., Dumas, A., “ACHEON: Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-Jet Nozzle ”, Sae Technical Papers N. 2011-01-2737, 2011.
9. ACHEON - Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-jet Nozzle, European Commission, Project reference: 309041, Funded under: FP7-TRANSPORT, 2011. http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/103805_en.html.
10. Dumas, A., Pascoa, J., Trancossi, M., Tacchini, A., Ilieva, G., and Madonia, M. (2012), "Acheon project: A novel vectoring jet concept" , Proc. ASME. 45172; Volume 1: Advances in Aerospace Technology: 499-508, IMECE2012-87638.
11. Trancossi, M., Dumas, A., and Vucinic, D., "Mathematical Modeling of Coanda Effect," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2195, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2195.
12. Subhash, M. and Dumas, A., "Computational Study of Coanda Adhesion Over Curved Surface," SAE Int. J. Aerosp. 6(1):260-272, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-2302.
13. Dumas, A., Subhash, M., Trancossi, M., and Marques, J.P. "The influence of surface temperature on Coanda effect", Energy Procedia Vol. 45, pp. 626-634, 2014.
14. Das, S.S. Abdollahzadeh, M., Pascoa, J. C., Dumas, A., and Trancossi, M., (2014) "Numerical modeling of Coanda effect in a novel propulsive system", Int. Jnl. of Multiphysics, Volume 8 • Number 2, pp. 181-201.
15. Trancossi M, Subhash M., Angeli D. Mathematical modelling of a two streams Coanda effect nozzle. ASME Int. Mech. Engg. Conf. and Exhibition, paper no. IMECE2013-63459; 2013.
16. Trancossi, M., Dumas, A., Das, S. S., and Páscoa, J. C., (2014) "Design Methods of Coanda nozzle with two streams", INCAS Bulletin, Volume 6 (1), Pages 83-95, ISSN 2066-8201, doi: 10.13111/2066-8201.2014.6.1.8
17. Dragan V., "Reynolds number calculation and applications for curved wall jets", INCAS Bulletin, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp. 35 – 41, 2014.
18. Pascoa, J. C., Dumas, A., Trancossi, M., Stewart, P., and Vucinic, D., "A review of thrust-vectoring in support of a V/STOL non-moving mechanical propulsion system" Cent. Eur. J. Eng., 3(3), pp. 374-388, 2013.
19. Páscoa, J.C. Brójo F. M. P., and Monteiro J. M. M., "Numerical Simulation of Magneto-plasma Thrusters for Aerospace Propulsion Using and MHD Formulation", Paper O-7.2 Proc. 14th International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems, Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear, 6 pgs, (2009).
20. Abdollahzadeh M., and Pascoa J., Modified Split-Potential Model for Modeling the Effect of DBD Plasma Actuators in High Altitude Flow, Control Current Applied Physics, (2014).
21. Abdollahzadeh, M., Páscoa J.C. and Oliveira P.J. "Two-dimensional numerical modeling of interaction of micro-shock wave generated by nanosecond plasma actuators and transonic flow", Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Volume 270, pp. 401-416, 2014.

5 papers are at least expected after the project conclusion. They are at different level of the revision process.

List of Websites:
acheon.eu

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