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Identification and assessment of training needs, methods and activities for the wider use of environmental technologies in key sectors

Final Report Summary - ETTAR (Identification and assessment of training needs, methods and activities for the wider use of environmental technologies in key sectors)

ETTAR was a project funded under the Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) dealing with opportunities and potentials to increase the sustainability of freight transport, laying its focus on the role of environmental technologies. This question is decisive for environmental protection given that transport accounts for more than one quarter of CO2 emissions worldwide. At the same time, the transport sector has the highest emission growth rate of all sectors. Tackling transport is crucial for tackling climate change and business-as-usual is no longer acceptable in the transport sector and elsewhere. Against this background, the project contributed to raising awareness and providing training for industry and policy makers with regard to the environmental effects of freight transport.

The ETTAR project was led by Ecologic - Institute for International and European Environmental Policy in cooperation with the following partners: Chalmers University (Sweden), Clean Technology Centre (Ireland), Deutsche Bahn AG (Germany), Enviros (Czech Republic) and University of Cambridge Programme for Sustainable Leadership (United Kingdom).

The ETTAR team facilitated workshops and a concluding conference bringing together key actors from the transport sector:
- to raise and deepen awareness of the business opportunities which green logistics entail;
- to analyse the barriers which are still in the way to their adaptation; and
- to discuss the role European and national policy makers can and must play.

To give a short sum-up of the ETTAR project, ETTAR facilitated three workshops and a concluding conference, disseminated two policy briefs, four background notes and event summaries, developed an e-learning specification and produced a live reality sketch. The project ran from April 2007 to September 2008.

Objectives of the events

The objectives of the ETTAR workshops and the concluding conference were to raise awareness and build capacities to address the environmental impacts occurring along the supply chain, to help businesses becoming more aware of the impacts linked to transport.

The events assembled representatives from the freight transport industry (including road, rail, sea or air-based transport modes) with the purpose to create a 'dialogue atmosphere' between the different stakeholders and to talk freely about existing problems. In order to keep up confidentiality, the Chatham house rule was applied throughout the events meaning that nobody shall be cited outside the events unless the respective speaker has given his consent.

A major focus of the events was the identification and assessment of training needed to promote the practical adoption or up-take and application of environmental technologies in the transport sector. ETTAR pinpointed the need for logistics managers to learn, as well as to facilitate learning within their companies, and discussed the best available technologies and best practices that industry could adopt without exceeding certain cost limits.

Other deliverables

- Background notes serving as a basis for the discussions in the workshops and the conference;
- two Policy Briefs summing up partly the results of the workshops and the conference and developing policy recommendations;
- dissemination of results;
- e-learning specification.


Three workshops were organised by the consortium over the duration of the project:
- workshop 1, 25-26 October 2007, Gothenburg, 'Transport and the environment, barriers to the take up of currently available lower carbon technologies'
- workshop 2, 24-25 January 2008, Prague, 'Barriers to the take up of more efficient transport and logistics planning and training and awareness raising methods'
- workshop 3, 17-18 April 2008, Berlin, 'The road ahead: training and awareness-raising that will encourage the freight transport sector to improve its environmental performance'

Concluding conference

The concluding one day conference took place on 9 September 2008 in Brussels in the Renaissance Brussels Hotel. The conference was organised in the same way as the workshops (see above). Ecologic prepared and organised the final conference, which summarised the results of the project and produced recommendations. For the widest possible dissemination of findings and recommendations, particular senior executives were approached on bilateral basis, using the network of Deutsche Bahn and partners, such as Schenker and Siemens as well as the overall ETTAR network.

The conference assembled altogether 60 participants (36 participants excluding the project team), in particular senior participants, able to multiply the conference's messages in the most effective way. The senior executives represented firms such as Schenker, Deutsche Post, Kühne und Nagel, Nestlé, PIK, DHL, Railog AB and others.

Ecologic sent out 798 invitations on 12 March 2008 to potential senior executives. 784 reminders followed on 7 August 2008 and on 27 August 2008.

The conference consisted of two key note speeches, a session of four working groups and a report back of the results to the plenary. The conference also included a panel discussion, where key questions of improving transport sustainability were treated by representatives of different stakeholders. Andreas R. Kraemer moderated the panel discussion and Grit Martinez delivered the concluding remarks.

Ecologic had several agreements with the hotel venue, for example only seasonal regional food was served as well as tab water in carafes. Furthermore, Ecologic organised the display of pictures featuring ‘green transportation' in the foyer in front of the main conference room. The slide show was supported by Siemens.
One of the highlights of the conference was a live performance with two international working actors with the title 'What's in the way: Classical weaknesses of the transport industry'. The performance was filmed by a professional camera crew and is available on DVD.

Policy Brief

Work package 4 was geared towards the development of policy briefs. Policy Briefs are 10-15 page documents intended to inform about the discussions and results of the ETTAR project and to derive from this policy conclusions for the European Commission and the Member States.

Based on the Background Notes and the results of the events, two Policy Briefs were developed. The focus as well as the structure of each Policy Brief were discussed and agreed upon in detail with the European Commission. After the European Commission's approval the policy briefs were put on the website for dissemination. All the partners linked their website to the policy briefs.

Work package 6: E-learning specification, lead by University of Cambridge

A specification of a low-cost e-learning module to increase awareness in the transport industry of the business benefits of environmental sustainability was designed in the period between March and August 2008.

Results and conclusions

The ETTAR project has shown that the logistic industry and their customers face a considerable number of opportunities to improve the environmental performance of the sector. However, options have to be discussed on how incentives could be created for the implementation of new technologies and the integration of sustainable options.

Thus, policy makers should consider a mix of instruments to achieve the wanted steering effects in the transport sector. The overall goal remains: the environmental performance of the different transport modes has to be reflected in the market prices. Only if the environmental and safety performance of the different transport modes are reflected more strongly in pricing will they influence the customer's economic decision on which mode of transport to use and thus help to contribute towards the development of a sustainable transport system.

Before any further policy action is taken by the European Commission, the freight transport industry has many possibilities to improve their environmental performance voluntarily and to anticipate any possible tightening of standards. Transport buyers and civil society can, in turn, exert considerable pressure on the transport providers to adopt sustainable transport technologies. And as long as is it is still the simplest way and in most cases the more favourable alternative to stick to unsustainable solutions business leaders (transport buyers as well as providers) will usually not change their decision making process. The reason why the process is slow is that business leaders in general do not see any (immediate) benefits from investing in environmental technologies. These benefits and respective incentives have to be developed and implemented, while using comprehensive networks between the different parties in the transport sector, including industry, policy-makers and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). At the same time, it is necessary to identify and to make clear the opportunities and risks that will result if sustainable solutions are not tackled - particularly with regard to the challenge of climate change and in the long run the increasing costs to arise by reason of adapting to climate change.

E-learning is a tool that can be used to raise awareness and to stimulate the development of sustainable transport scenarios amongst freight transport suppliers and customers. In the e-learning tutorial that has been developed in the ETTAR project, freight transport customers and providers are presented with some of the challenges and dilemmas facing the logistics industry. Throughout, it is made clear that as well as facing urgent environmental challenges, there are real business opportunities for logistics organisations. The objective of e-learning is to change the mindset rather than to merely give information. The essential message is that businesses need to act to reduce the harmful environmental effects of freight transport, and that if it is not done voluntarily, there will be pressures both from governments and consumers (society) that will bring about changes in ways that may be hardly comfortable for the industry.

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