The proposed subject is quite unexpected: are we moving towards full automation of the Air Traffic System (ATS), including aircraft and traffic control, as it is the case now in many subways in the world? A colloquium at international level (including US participation) is the most effective way to encourage exchanges on this subject so as to reach a better understanding of the goals to be reached. The expected exchanges of prospective ideas could lead either to a cycle of conferences or a thematic netwo rk on the issue or both. The evolution in systems automation in the past fifty years has stemmed from a growing demand and the twin ambitions of maintaining the safety rate whilst improving performance. It may have a favourable impact on environmental and societal issues. Implementation of a second global positioning system, GALILEO, will provide integrity, continuity, availability and precision of a global localization. It may allow complete aircraft automation. From another side, the rapid development of UAVs calls for evaluation of their inclusion in civilian traffic. The object of the colloquium is to open discussions in order to optimise the developments of automation both on aircraft and in traffic control centres. Full automation is not the prime objective of the discussion. However it could be a conclusion. If so, the transition period in which fully and non-fully automatic planes will co-exist in fully and non-fully automatic airspace should be considered. The objective of this Specific Suppor t Action is to assemble people acting in aircraft operational exploitation: air operators, companies and pilots, ATM organizations, aircraft and systems manufacturers, passenger and cabin crew organizations, psychologists, aviation authorities, IATA, Eur opean Commission. The conference will be organized by the Académie Nationale de l'Air et de l'Espace in October 2005 in Toulouse.
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