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ENSOCIO-LA: Strategic, Sustainable R&I Cooperation with Latin America (Climate Action, Resource Efficiency and Raw Materials)

Final Report Summary - ENSOCIO-LA (ENSOCIO-LA: Strategic, Sustainable R&I Cooperation with Latin America (Climate Action, Resource Efficiency and Raw Materials))

Executive Summary:
The ENSOCIO-LA project was a 2-year Coordination and Support Action which supported sustainable and integrated research and innovation cooperation between the EU and Latin American Countries in the environmental field, namely in climate change, resource efficiency and raw materials. The project ran from May 2013 until April 2015, with 14 partners – half drawn from the EU and half from LAC. The project had strong links with a series of other projects and programmes and fed into the Joint Initiative for Research and Innovation (JIRI) of EU and CELAC (Community of Latin American and Caribbean States) as one of the thematic projects supporting the SOM working groups; in particular, ENSOCIO-LA supported the goals of the SOM Biodiversity Working Group. (See http://www.ensocio-la.eu/project-links.php ).

The anticipated impacts of ENSOCIO-LA included:
a) To establish a more strategic, integrated and sustainable research and innovation collaboration in the field of climate change, resource efficiency and raw materials between the EU and LAC
b) Stimulation of future integrated and strategic cooperation activities
c) Mobilisation of financial means from various sources
d) Enhanced uptake and use of research and research results for meeting societal challenges in bi-regional and bilateral mutual priorities.
e) Supporting policy advice and agenda setting

The approach taken by ENSOCIO-LA to enhance EU-LAC cooperation in these areas included the following actions:
1) An extensive review of past and ongoing projects linking the EU and LAC in these topic areas, funded by a variety of programmes (leading to a long list of ~500 projects)
2) Evaluation of those projects for future potential (based upon potential for ongoing development, uptake and industry implementation of the project outcomes); identification of a short list (~60 projects) for closer consultation
3) Focussing upon the short listed projects, identification of priorities and opportunities for further research collaboration, including prioritised actions, and potential sources of funding
4) Initiation of supporting actions wherever possible and provision of recommendations for research priorities and actions into funding projects and programmes such as ALCUE NET, ERANet-LAC, SOM Working Groups, Horizon 2020 etc. Production of a specific roadmap summarising these actions, priorities and recommendations
5) Creation of a knowledge platform for public online access containing all project data, including long listed, short listed projects, funding sources etc with a user interface to allow searching in many different ways, supporting the longer term use and uptake of the project knowledge
For more information see www.ensocio-la.eu
and contact mark.morris@samuifrance.com

Project Context and Objectives:
Project Context and Objectives:
The ENSOCIO-LA project was a 2-year Coordination and Support Action which aimed at establishing and supporting sustainable and integrated research and innovation cooperation between the EU and Latin American Countries in the environmental field, namely in climate change, resource efficiency and raw material.
Supporting the EU-CELAC Joint Initiative for Research and Innovation
The project had established strong links with a series of other projects and programmes. Primarily, the project fed into the EU-CELAC Joint Initiative for Research and Innovation (JIRI), as shown below. ENSOCIO-LA can be seen as one of the thematic projects supporting the SOM working groups; in particular, ENSOCIO-LA supported the goals of the Biodiversity Working Group.

The EU-LAC SOM, Working Group and Supporting Project Framework
A detailed explanation of the EU-CELAC SOM structure, including the working group process and supporting research projects can be found at www.ensocio-la.eu/project-links.php

The project had strong links with the SOM process and various supporting projects. In mid 2015, ENSOCIO-LA partners such as Colciencias, leads the Biodiversity Working Group, MINCyT coordinates the ALCUE NET project and DLR Coordinates the ERANet-LAC project. In particular, efforts were taken to ensure that the recommendations from ENSOCIO-LA supported the Biodiversity working group programme and fed into the ERANet-LAC project, where national funding was focussed to support two rounds of research calls.

ENSOCIO-LA ran in parallel with three other EU ‘sister’ projects. These projects each had similar goals but between the EU and different international regions:

IASON Knowledge Platform for research linking EU and Mediterranean Countries www.iason-fp7.eu

SUSTAIN Knowledge Platform for research linking EU and ASEAN Countries www.sustain-eu-asean.eu

RECREATE Similar goals but focussed on EU wide research only www.recreate-net.eu/dweb/

Achieving Objectives, Expected Impacts and the Project Team
The ENSOCIO-LA objectives were pursued through the following project work package structure:
• Review of initiatives, networks and funding opportunities (WP2)
• Climate change focussed actions (WP3)
• Resource efficiency focussed actions (WP4)
• Raw materials focussed actions (WP5)
• Proposals for the joint research and innovation agenda, including policy and funding (WP6)
• Networking, communication and dissemination (WP7)

The anticipated impact of these actions included:
1) To establish a more strategic, integrated and sustainable research and innovation collaboration in the field of climate change, resource efficiency and raw materials between the EU and Latin America
2) Stimulation of future integrated and strategic cooperation activities
3) Mobilisation of financial means from various sources
4) Enhanced uptake and use of research and research results for meeting societal challenges in bi-regional and bilateral mutual priorities.
5) Supporting policy advice and agenda setting
A core project objective was also the creation of a knowledge platform which would allow access to, and ongoing storage and analysis of the information collated and developed by the project. This would also provide a mechanism for the longer term sustainability and building from the project knowledge.

The ENSOCIO-LA work was undertaken by a team of 14 project partners, with 7 drawn from Latin America and the Caribbean, and 7 from Europe. The ENSOCIO-LA partnership comprised:

No Partner Country No. Partner Country
P01 Samui France (Coord) France P09 IVL Sweden
P03 UPCT Spain P10 CARIRI Trini & Tob.
P04 DLR Germany P11 Fraunhofer Germany
P05 MINCyT Argentina P12 IAI Uruguay
P06 CONICYT Chile P13 HZDR Germany
P07 COLCIENCIAS Colombia P14 CICITEM Chile
P08 CONACYT Mexico P15 Metcenas Czech Rep.

More information on the ENSOCIO-LA project partners can be accessed via the project website at www.ensocio-la.eu/Project_Team.php This website will remain active until at least 2020.

Project Results:
ENSOCIO-LA Project Results
The potential for actions under the broad topic headings of climate change, resource efficiency and raw materials, even when focussed around specific EU – LAC actions, is massive. Consequently, in order to advance EU LAC relations and actions, attention had to be focussed in specific areas – ideally where the need and potential for growth and uptake of research was the most promising. As such, the ENSOCIO-LA team developed the following approach to the project challenge, creating five broad steps in the programme of work:
1) An extensive review of past and ongoing projects linking the EU and LAC in these topic areas, funded by a variety of programmes (leading to a long list of ~500 projects)
2) Evaluation of those projects for future potential (based upon potential for ongoing development, uptake and industry implementation of the project outcomes); identification of a short list (~60 projects) for closer consultation
3) Focussing upon the short listed projects, identification of priorities and opportunities for further research collaboration, including prioritised actions, and potential sources of funding
4) Initiation of supporting actions wherever possible and provision of recommendations for research priorities and actions into funding projects and programmes such as ALCUE NET, ERANet-LAC, SOM Working Groups, Horizon 2020 etc. Production of a specific roadmap summarising these actions, priorities and recommendations
5) Creation of a knowledge platform for public online access containing all project data, including long listed, short listed projects, funding sources etc with a user interface to allow searching in many different ways, supporting the longer term use and uptake of the project knowledge

Whilst the programme of work is described as a series of 5 steps, the various actions were interlinked in different ways. Steps 1,2,3 and 5 were all undertaken, to some extent, in parallel, since in order to know what data had to be initially collected it was first necessary to be clear on the overall goals and what sort of information might be wanted as a final output.
Figure 1 provides a schematic overview of the steps required from initial definition of data requirements, through data collection, evaluation and prioritisation to produce the short list of projects for focus during the second year of the project and subsequent development of support actions.
The online database within which all project data was stored formed the tool for project evaluations (by selected expert evaluators) and ultimately the core of information used to create the online Knowledge Platform.

Figure 1 Steps from project review to prioritised actions

Step 1 Review of past and present EU LAC projects and initiatives
As a first step, a template was developed in which different data fields were defined to store information about any EU-LAC initiative found within the three topic areas. These data fields (for example, project name, objectives, funding programme, coordinator, website, partners etc) formed the basic structure of the online database into which all of the collated information was to be stored.
Data on past and present projects involving all EU member states and selected countries of Latin America as well as bilateral projects was collated. Partners provided data from their respective countries, which was added to the wider international programme data.
Through this action a total list of 454 projects between EU and LAC in the field of climate change, resource efficiency and raw materials was identified. The data was collated from different sources covering 22 different funding programmes/ sources, including:
λ EC - European Union - European Commission - Framework Programme (FP4,FP 5, FP6 + EULANEST, FP7, INCO projects)
λ EC - European Union - European Commission - Europe Aid
λ Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (The National Research Council - Italy)
λ Organisation of American States - Secretariat for Internal Development - Department of Sustainable Development (OAS)
λ Programa Iberoamericano de ciencia y tecnologia para el desarrollo (Ibero-American programme for science, technology and development – CYTED)
λ Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (Chile’s National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research)
λ United Nation - Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (Comisión Económica para América Latina - CEPAL)
λ Ministry of education youth and sports Czech Republic (MSMT)
λ Innovation Centre Denmark - Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs
λ The Latin-America-program Norway (LATINAMERIKA)
λ IAI - Inter-American institute for Global Change Research
λ Inter-American Development Bank
λ United States Agency for International Development
λ German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung - BMBF)
λ German Academic Exchange Service
λ Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Spain)
λ Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (Mexico)
λ Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (Colombia)
λ Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel - Brasil)
λ Evaluation-orientation de la Coopération Scientifique France
λ World Bank

Towards the end of the project, a further review of more recent FP7 and H2020 projects was also undertaken. This extended the database of information to ~500 projects.

For more information on these stages of work see ENSOCIO-LA Reports:
WP2-Dl-14-2 ENSOCIO-LA: Identification, review and listing of EU-LAC programmes and projects
WP6-Dl-15-1 Defining the concepts and approach for implementing at least three flagship initiatives
WP7-Dl-13-1 The ENSOCIO-LA Knowledge Platform

Step 2 Evaluation of the long list of projects
In a second step, a short list of about 50 of the most promising projects was identified through evaluation of the potential of each project identified under the ‘long list’ of projects.
Three panels of experts were created, drawing from a group of 37 technical experts – from both within the project partnership and invitees from external organisations. (After the evaluation process, all technical experts were invited to remain involved in the project as ‘associate partners’).
The work package leaders created three expert groups: WP3 expert group for climate change, WP4 expert group for resource efficiency, WP5 expert group for raw materials. Evaluation within each group resulted in three subcategories of projects:
1. unambiguously matching to priority area of the relevant expert group,
2. mixed - overlap to one or two of the other priority areas
3. projects totally not matching to the thematic area of the relevant expert group

Each thematic expert group scored the value of projects in their priority area. A minimum of two experts independently evaluated each project; where their scores differed significantly, a third evaluator was also added to the process and the two closest scores adopted. Scoring rated projects according to their relevance to the topic science areas, science focus, timing and relevance to H2020 and JIRI priorities.
From the prioritised long list of projects a short list of ~50 projects was formed. These projects were more closely evaluated. Each expert was also allowed to recommend ‘wild card’ projects for inclusion in the assessment.
For more information on these stages of work see ENSOCIO-LA Reports:
WP2-Dl-14-2 ENSOCIO-LA: Identification, review and listing of EU-LAC programmes and projects

Step 3 Focus on the short list of projects
The short listed projects were subsequently used as the starting point for identifying key topic issues, research priorities and actions.

Figure 1 Overview of project programme
Representatives of the 35 short listed projects were invited to the ENSOCIO-LA expert workshop, which took place in Cancún/Mexico from June 30th – July 2nd 2014. Representatives from Europe and LAC of the following projects were available and attended the event:
Biodiversity and Climate Change:
1) CAMILA: Climate Change Mitigation through biodiversity conservation and rural Landscape management to ensure sustainability of life support systems in mosaics modified by human activity
http://www.isvav.cz/projectDetail.do?rowId=7AMB13AR017

2) CarBioCial: Carbon sequestration, biodiversity and social structures in Southern Amazonia: models and implementation of carbon-optimized land management strategies
http://www.carbiocial.de/

3) IAI project SGP-CRA 2031: From farm-level management to governance of landscapes: Climate, water and land use decisions in the plains of Southern South America
http://www.iai.int/?p=2486

4) SIRIUS: Sustainable Irrigation water management and River-basin governance: Implementing User-driven Services
http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/96852_en.html

5) INNOVATE: Interplay among multiple uses of water reservoirs via innovative coupling of substance cycles in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems
http://www.innovate.tu-berlin.de

6) PNNAT-11289024: Evaluación y seguimiento satelital del cambio global (Satellite-based assessment and monitoring of global change)
http://sepa.inta.gov.ar/actividades/#proyectos

7) IAI project CRN3035: Towards usable climate science - Informing sustainable decisions and provision of climate services to the agriculture and water sectors of southeastern South America
http://www.iai.int/?p=2660

8) CLARIS LPB: A Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies in La Plata Basin
http://www.claris-eu.org/

9) Ice2Sea: Estimating the future contribution of continental ice to sea-level rise
http://www.ice2sea.eu/

Resource Efficiency
10) MYWATER: Merging Hydrologic models and EO data for reliable information on Water
http://www.mywater-fp7.eu/

11) LiWa: Sustainable Water Management of water and waste water in urban growth areas under the influence of climate change - concepts for the metropolis region Lima
http://www.lima-water.de/

12) COROADO: Technologies for Water Recycling and Reuse in Latin American Context: Assessment, Decision Tools and Implementable Strategies under an Uncertain Future
http://www.coroado-project.eu/

13) TWINLATIN: Twinning European and Latin-American River Basins for Research Enabling Sustainable Water Resources Management
http://www.twin2go.uos.de/projects/twinlatin

14) TWINBAS: Twinning European and third countries river basins for development of integrated water resources management methods
http://www.twin2go.uos.de/projects/twinbas

15) MERCURY: Development of viable technologies and monitoring systems for the remediation/detection of mercury in south american waters. Design of chelators with therapeutical properties
http://cordis.europa.eu/projects/rcn/67152_en.html

Raw Materials:
16) PHBOTTLE: New sustainable, functionalized and competitive PHB material based in fruit by-products getting advanced solutions for packaging and non-packaging applications
http://www.phbottle.eu/

17) Opti-Moly: Optimization of Molybdenum Recovery from Porphyry Copper Ores in Chile
(no apparent website)

18) MAREX: Exploring Marine Resources for Bioactive Compounds: From Discovery to Sustainable Production and Industrial Applications
http://www.marex.fi/

19) BEST: BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport
http://www.best-europe.org/

This represented perhaps half of the short listed projects, with the other half either not responding or being unable / available / unwilling to participate in the ENSOCIO-LA work.

For more information on these stages of work see ENSOCIO-LA Reports:
WP3-Dl-14-1 Research position, gaps and needs in the field of climate change
WP4-Dl-14-1 Research position, gaps and needs in the field of resource efficiency
WP5-Dl-14-2 Research position, gaps and needs in the field of raw materials

Step 4a Initiating Support Actions
The specific objectives of the ENSOCIO-LA Cancún event were to bring together a mixture of different stakeholders from across different countries and professions with the common goals of promoting networking and clustering of projects; supporting uptake of recent and ongoing research as well as establishing links and consortiums for future collaboration.
The representatives of the invited projects (listed above) briefly presented their research activities and then were clustered into three different working groups, in accordance with the three ENSOCIO-LA topics. Discussions within the three working groups were led by the leaders of WP3 (Climate change focused actions), WP4 (Resource efficiency focused actions) and WP5 (Raw material focused actions).
In parallel work sessions the experts discussed and compared the aspects and issues of their respective projects in a more detailed way in order to identify cross-cutting commonalities, overlaps and common problems. Problems that appeared during these working sessions included:
− A clear allocation of the projects to the specific working group was not always due to the complex and intertwined nature of environmental issues
o Solution: some projects attended (alternating) more than one of the topic groups (e.g. BEST and SIRIUS)
− Insufficient comparability of the different projects due to the wide range of potential topics
o Solution: focus on more general issues
− The range of topics was affected by the coincidental availability / absence of invited experts / researchers
o Solution: recognize this problem as a decision support for one outstanding topic and accept that attendance / participation reflects valuable motivation to drive forward any initiative(s).
During the initial parallel session discussions, the first step was to review the very general topic areas of climate change/biodiversity, resource efficiency and raw materials, with the aim being to narrow the focus of discussions to topics and issues considered most relevant (and relevant to that group of experts). The first group defined “Biodiversity, Land Use and Climate Services” as their focus area, the second group determined “Urban and Rural Water” as their emphasis and the third group concentrated on “Waste as Raw Material”.
Additional work sessions were held across a 2 day period to further specify these topics. Based on the previously defined priority areas, topics for concrete creative and innovative initiatives of high bi-regional relevance were elaborated. The result of these work sessions was the identification of the following scope of topics:
Group 1 (Biodiversity, Land Use and Climate Services):
Group leader: MINCyT and IAI
Participating projects: BioCuencas, CAMILA, CLARIS LPB, FORLIVE, IAI CRN 3035, Ice2Sea, INNOVATE, PNNAT-11289024, SIRIUS, BEST, IAI SGP-CRA2031
Focus topics:
1) Water resources and food security
2) Governance of Climate, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
3) Sustainable agriculture development with Earth Observation systems, carbon and water footprints and decision making systems for resource efficiency use
4) Role of small holders in global land use changes and biodiversity
5) Ecosystem services
6) Stakeholder networks able to create the conditions to coproduce knowledge

Group 2 (Urban and Rural Water):
Group leader: CONICYT
Participating projects: SIRIUS, MyWATER, LiWa, DESAFIO, INNOVATE, MERCURY, TWINLATIN, TWINBASIN, COROADO
Scope topics:
1) Small-scale implementation of wastewater treatment systems
2) Use of wastewater for agricultural production
3) Health, climate change and water quality
4) Use of satellite information for different downstream areas – water and land management in rural areas – including data available through the Copernicus Programme

Group 3 (Waste as Raw Material):
Group leader: CONACYT and IVL
Participating projects: OPTIMOLY, MAREX, PHBottle, BEST
Scope topics:
1) Biofuels
2) Bioplastics
3) Sustainable mining (tailing processing etc.)
4) Primary mining knowledge exchange
5) Sustainable production of marine based materials
6) Use same material for multiple purposes (Industrial symbiosis)
7) Get science to market
8) More sustainable agriculture

At the end of the workshop, the group leaders collated the results of the three parallel working groups in a plenary feedback session. The consortium agreed on the next steps to be taken for further promotion and development of collaborative EU-LAC effort on the selected research topics.
These conclusions are elaborated the detailed reports D3.3 D4.3 and D5.3. These reports not only contain a background on collaboration between LAC and EU on the three ENSOCIO-LA topic areas and a more detailed description of the determined scope topics but also an initial chapter about actions to support research uptake and implementation.
For more information on these stages of work see ENSOCIO-LA Reports:
WP3-Dl-15-1 Enhancing EU-LAC Collaboration and Joint Research Initiatives: Conclusions from the Cancún Biodiversity, Land Use and Climate Services Session
WP4-Dl-15-1 Enhancing EU-LAC Collaboration and Joint Research Initiatives: Conclusions from the Cancún Urban and Rural Water Group Sessions
WP5-Dl-15-1 Enhancing EU-LAC Collaboration and Joint Research Initiatives: Conclusions from the Cancún Raw Materials Sessions

Step 4b Progressing Support Actions
After the workshop in Cancún, each of the Groups were responsible for developing topic detail (priorities, actions etc) in more detail and to start implementing the various actions identified. A further focussing of effort was appropriate in order to allow some productive steps to be taken in a few priority areas, rather than effort being too widely dispersed.
Hence, the Groups focussed on actions associated with the following topics for future initiatives:
Group 1: Climate Change and Biodiversity
− Water Resources and Food Security
− Governance of Climate, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
− Role of Small Holders in Global Land Use Changes and Biodiversity
Group 2: Resource Efficiency
− Participatory implementation of small-scale waste water treatment systems and water reuse technologies
Group 3: Raw Materials
− Sustainable Mining

In parallel to the thematic team efforts, three other specific actions were undertaken to support the overall goals: (i) Identification of Funding Opportunities; (ii) Analysis of past project partner collaboration; (iii) Development of the Knowledge platform (see Step 5 later below).
Funding Opportunities
To help match potential research actions with suitable financing instruments a list of about 90 ENSOCIO-LA-topic related funding sources from all over the word was developed (in the form of a spreadsheet).
In developing this list, funding programmes of the following countries were analysed: Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, France, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Czech Republic, Spain and Sweden.
Three different categories of funder were considered:
• international development banks,
• European Commission,
• national funding institutes/others.

This list of funding sources, which is available on http://ensocio-la.eu/ can be used as a reference aid and contains the most important information of the various sources of funding, as far as information was available (during late 2014). The conditions and focus of the various funding programmes varies greatly from call to call and by organisation, however the condensed list of current funding opportunities provides a valuable resource for any researchers looking to develop EU-LAC research collaboration.
For more information on these stages of work see ENSOCIO-LA Reports:
WP2-Dl-14-4 Analysis of networking potential as influenced by cultural, institutional and individuals tools and instruments.

Analysis of Past / Present Project Partner Collaboration
Knowledge of current / past practice in EU-LAC research collaboration with respect to partner types, nationalities, geography etc. is useful for researchers looking to establish new research collaboration in specific topic areas.
It was not realistic (within the project budget) to analyse all 500 projects identified as part of the ENSOCIO-LA ‘long list’, but the partners of the 175 best-evaluated projects were analysed in detail. The following trends were observed:
λ There is an average of 11,4 partners per project
λ In LAC, researchers from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile and Colombia are represented in the most research collaborations
λ In the EU, Germany participated in the most bi-regional projects, followed by Spain, UK, France and Netherlands
λ Almost three-quarters of the projects were coordinated by EU institutions, only one-fifth was led by LAC organisations
λ At a national level, most coordinators of the projects are German, British, Spanish and Mexican researchers
λ Almost half of the projects were led by universities, 23% by governmental organisations, 22% by non-governmental research institution and only 6% of the projects were coordinated by private economy organisations
λ In one quarter of the projects, SMEs are involved with an average of 2.8 SMEs per project. Only 3% of the projects were coordinated by a SME

Another observation is that the origin of the project coordinator is heavily linked to the source of finance for a project. Thus, for example the projects which were funded by the German BMBF were all coordinated by a German partner while the projects which were funded by CONACYT usually have Mexican coordinators. Projects which were financed by international funding sources such as USAID, IAI or World Bank have mostly Latin American coordinators whilst EC-financed projects in general are coordinated by European institutions. Of the 175 projects reviewed, there were only four exceptions to these rules.
For more information on these stages of work see ENSOCIO-LA Reports:
WP6-Dl-15-2 Strategic roadmap for bi-regional cooperation including recommendations for EU and national funding agencies.

Topic Priorities and Actions
Two further ENSOCIO-LA workshops were held to help progress the development of thematic support actions. These were the Marseille (Nov 2014) and Berlin (March 2015) meetings, attending by both EU and LAC partners, along with invited experts.
Each of the three topic area groups developed and started to implement a programme of actions intended to facilitate EU-LAC collaboration in their respective priority topic areas. Hence the suggested actions adopted by each group vary according to the topic, research and industry needs. In common to each group was the suggestion to provide recommendations that were:
a) General observations
b) Recommendations for the EC and Horizon 2020 programme
c) Recommendations for the ERANet-LAC 2nd Joint Call
d) Recommendations for the EU-CELAC SOM process
A brief summary of the Group topic recommendations is given below; more detailed descriptions and group developed specifications and actions can be found within the D4 series of reports (also referenced below). General comments and recommendations follow the topic recommendations.

Climate Change & Biodiversity
Promising topics recommended for future Horizon 2020 calls included:
λ Governance of climate, biodiversity and ecosystem services
λ Sustainable agriculture development with earth observation systems, carbon and water footprints and decision making systems for resource efficiency use

Specific topic recommendations for the ERANet-LAC 2nd Joint call:
λ Enhancement of public and private market for Climate Services through institutional innovation in response to socio economic needs in CELAC region.

Specific topic recommendations for the next EU-CELAC SOM meeting:
Climate change is a worldwide threat having impacts mainly on Environment, Food Security and Human health. These impacts affect CELAC countries as well as the European Union, and it seems rational to search for joint solutions and experiences. A comparative analysis of successful experiences in EU and CELAC for mutual learning in Climate Service field is highly desirable.
The expansion of the market for Climate Services and products in EU and CELAC will open business opportunities for the private sector. The EU has the potential to lead in the provision of Climate Services at the global level. This would require, however, strong cross-disciplinary teams as well as effective interaction with local stakeholders.
Given this background, the following topic has been suggested to be prioritised and promoted at the next EU-CELAC SOM meeting: “Enhancement of public and private market for Climate Services through institutional innovation in response to socio economic needs in CELAC region”.

Resource Efficiency
Promising topics recommended for future Horizon 2020 calls included:
λ Water resources and food security
λ Valorisation of agro-industrial, food-industrial and urban residues including nutrient recovery from wastewater and organic residues
λ metal recovery from wastes and by-products
λ Research on the health – water – climate change nexus

Specific topic recommendations for the ERANet-LAC 2nd Joint call:
λ Wastewater treatment
λ Bio-economy
λ Health-water-climate change nexus

Specific topic recommendations for the next EU-CELAC SOM meeting:
The following points are recommended for consideration:
λ Contribute, through the SOM working group on biodiversity, to the development of an EU/LAC knowledge infrastructure to specifically address the lack of availability of quality data on hydrological resources in Latin America (hydrological models, tele-detection, remote sensing systems, and field validation processes).
λ Emphasize the importance of consultation processes with and direct participation of national stakeholders and sector specialists in research projects dealing with the management and use of natural resources. This is considered particularly relevant to the steps of selecting and implementing a new technology at the local level.
λ In the context of increased pressure on hydrological resources, support bi-regional dialogue on legislation and technical cooperation on water re-use.

Raw Materials
Promising topics recommended for future Horizon 2020 calls included:
λ Biofuels
λ Bioplastics
λ Primary mining knowledge exchange
λ Sustainable bio-prospecting of marine-based materials
λ Use same material for multiple purposes (Industrial symbiosis)
λ Sustainable agriculture

Sustainable mining (tailings, processing, mining wastes, etc...)
Both EU and LAC countries have large mining operations, and there is great potential for technology and information exchange along the mining supply chain. This potential is not realised today, leaving know-how and development of more sustainable processing techniques “locked in” in the respective countries and regions.
λ Basic research in mining/floatation and hydrometallurgical processing to improve yields and understanding for better efficiencies
λ Water recycling in mining
λ Resource efficiency in mining
λ Underwater mining: sustainability aspects
λ Sustainable access to critical raw materials

Specific topic recommendations for the ERANet-LAC 2nd Joint call:
λ Sustainable mining: health and remediation of contaminated sites
λ Waste management, recycling and urban mining

Specific topic recommendations for the next EU-CELAC SOM meeting:
Many raw materials will face increased competition and be of strategic importance to the development of sustainable societies in the future. It is recommended that the following actions are considered by the EU-CELAC -SOM. ENSOCIO-LA partners can be used as drivers in the process:
λ Development of common knowledge infrastructures for raw materials to be able to quantify and analyse current and future stocks, needs and potentials in minerals, biomass and agricultural products.
λ Organize a workshop for funding bodies and national contact points focused on cultural understanding in cooperation between EU and LAC countries, using best practice projects as examples. This will enable learning from practical experiences and can enhance long term, strategic and sustainable business relations.
λ Use the SOM working group on Bio-economy for sharing and discussing existing policies for waste treatment and environmental protection between the regions. This will aid future harmonization of legislation.

For more information on these stages of work see ENSOCIO-LA Reports:
WP3-Dl-15-2 Enhancing EU-LAC Collaboration and Joint Research Initiatives: Climate change focussed actions
WP4-Dl-15-2 Enhancing EU-LAC Collaboration and Joint Research Initiatives: Resource efficiency focussed actions
WP5-Dl-15-1 Enhancing EU-LAC Collaboration and Joint Research Initiatives: Raw materials focussed actions
WP6-Dl-15-2 Strategic roadmap for bi-regional cooperation including recommendations for EU and national funding agencies.

General recommendations:
...for the Horizon 2020 programme:

The following general recommendations arose from the thematic Group discussions during year 2 of the project:
λ More interdisciplinary call topics:
Calls of the current work programmes and currently discussed work programmes of H2020 are not reflecting the bi-regional priorities and needs well. For example, one of the projects represented addresses the issue of mercury in water but health issues are absent from the priorities on water research in H2020.
λ Enhancing the creation of stakeholder networks including stronger involvement of small-holders and family farms (e.g. in the areas of sustainable agriculture, water management and biodiversity conservation)
λ Get science to market:
It is vital that research results are scaled up to market conditions, be it in the mining industry or in production of novel raw materials from marine or waste feedstock. Full production scale poses quite different challenges, both technically and economically, which need to be overcome to reach the full potential of the technology. Another important aspect of getting science to market is the involvement of SMEs, especially in LAC countries. This supports entrepreneurship and is a good growing ground for new technologies.
λ Extension of geographical coverage for specific calls:
Generally, the LAC region is relatively weakly considered in current and future work H2020 programmes. This does not at all reflect the high importance, which Commissioner Carlos Moedas attributes to EU-LAC collaboration:
“Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean already share the same interest in cooperating on important areas, such as health research, renewable energies, the bio-economy, marine sciences, sustainable urbanisation and many others. We enjoy a friendship, based on mutually beneficial cooperation that can only become more profound and productive.(...) This means that researchers from Latin American and the Caribbean, but also other regions of the world, can work together with European researchers in practically every field of research and innovation covered by our programme. What's more, Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean are perfectly positioned to create a Common Research Area together. One that builds on the EU-CELAC Knowledge Area and increases strategic research cooperation between our regions. A first area in which we could step up our cooperation in this manner relates to the question of how best to connect the on-going trans-Atlantic activities on marine research in the North Atlantic with the Southern Atlantic. Another potential area is renewable energy, including biofuels and geothermal energies where many CELAC countries have huge untapped potential. A third area of potential common interest is the testing of nature-based solutions for sustainable urbanisation, disaster risk reduction and tourism. And a fourth is the development of climate services to support international and national decision-making. ”(speech of Carlos Moedas, 8 June 2015, EU-CELAC summit, Brussels)

However, in some cases the geographical coverage of H2020 calls is limited to European countries or specific world regions – Africa and non-European Mediterranean countries among others – although they address topics of global interest. Therefore, the geographical scope of calls could be extended to LAC countries when they address issues of natural resource management relevant to the region, such as:
- Social innovation for rural development.
- Water re-use methodologies for local communities.
- Methodology and tools to cope with climate change, natural hazards and ecosystem degradation.
- Promotion of integrated ecosystem-based approaches applied to local and regional development planning (incl. land use planning and water use and re-use).
λ Ensure the creation of multi-sectoral partnerships:
H2020 has reduced the funding for industrial partners to 70% of direct total costs with fixed indirect costs of 25%, which means that it has become less attractive for them to participate in the programme. To guarantee the participation of industry it is necessary to implement more durable and attractive structures for participation for multiple partners, including for example, supporting financially twinning between partners from diverse sectors.
λ Strengthen the opportunity of network building
As the analysis of the current thematic bi-regional operating networks of the ENSOCIO-LA topic areas shows, there is a significant lack of ‘long term’ networks especially in the fields of raw materials and resource efficiency. The biggest problem is that networks which arise during the course of research project activities in general do not remain after the project completion due to the lack of financing. Thus, network-building-activities should be promoted in a better and more durable way in the future, for example by creating new financing opportunities. Close and personal networks are seen as an important factor for the success of bi-regional research collaboration.
...for the EU-CELAC SOM process:
The results of the ENSOCIO-LA project led to the following recommendations which are intended to help improve the future bi-lateral research cooperation between EU and LAC:
■ Include the implementation of science-knowledge into the process of decision making in funding programmes
Calls for proposals through EU-CELAC funding programmes should specifically include knowledge-networks organized to co-explore and co-produce useful climate information, and the actual use of climate knowledge in decision making, policy elaboration and planning.
■ Communication/dialog between public and private actors, in actions with added value (synergy)
Despite an improvement in public-private dialogue, there is a still a clear gap between public research and private needs. Especially in the framework of climate services, there is a clear need of intermediate actors (private consulting companies), which can dedicate a large part of their time identifying private needs, as well as collaborating with public research groups in order to translate knowledge into products, services, for decision-making and thus actions. The dialog between private and public sectors in order to add value to the knowledge generated by research and to create highly qualified jobs is a challenge for all societies.
■ Adequate legislation (comprehensive & scientifically-based policies)
There is a lack of common legislation to address the problems of biodiversity and climate change in the region. Some examples: Forestry: to prevent deforestation and encourage reforestation, Agriculture: what policies should be applied for adapting agricultural production to climate change shocks (including erosion, floods, wildfires), Sustainable cities: investment in infrastructure for adaptation (floods, salinisation of water, urban heat island)
■ Capacitate technical advisors and local scientists to policy makers
It is recognized that encouraging dialogue between scientists and decision makers is not simple. A way to encourage this dialogue through the training of technical advisors is proposed, as a means of transmitting scientific knowledge to achieve concrete actions.
■ Water regime and balance, climate and biodiversity information being available for decision makers in a common observatory and common methodology
Despite the fact that the information exists per se, it is not necessarily found to be in a common format and, first of all, publically available. In some cases, there is an excessive concentration of knowledge in a single organization (such as an environmental authority). It is advisable to support activities which can lead to standardization of the information and its provision for decision making on local through regional and national to international levels. A common platform and methodology could be considered for improving the availability and access to the information. The application of standards, such as those proposed by the INSPIRE European Directive, should reinforce the interoperability and sharing of data.
■ Small-holders as users and protectors of ecosystems have to be considered into the decision making process
Small-holder, in most cases, represents an ultimate factor in the management of local resources, including conservation by use practices. Their voices as individuals, however, are weak. Therefore there is an urgent need to support activities that encourage their networking which should lead to the formation of platforms able to articulate and promote their needs at regional and national levels.
Small-holders can be considered “owners” of local knowledge on the long-term (sustainable) management of natural and cultural resources at hand. Local knowledge, by definition is locally bound and its replication elsewhere is never absolute but conditional. Actions are needed to support activities which reveal and consequently apply techniques which enable the transfer of sustainable local practices in resources management.
■ Strengthening multinational networks/ networks of networks (umbrella organization, LARA (Latin American Research Area) or SARA (South American Research Area):
LAC is starting with regional projects to improve socio-economic development. But the momentum is also there for the creation of a larger network of research for sharing and transferring knowledge, information, experiences, expertise and visions. In Europe this is called the European Research Area (ERA). This is an excellent platform for bi-regional twinning and sharing of the experiences and RTD cooperation.
There are signs of multidimensional integration in which, besides efforts for improving trade and commerce in the region, there is a strong governmental commitment to integrate the RTD capabilities and research communities into a LARA, a contextualised regional version of ERA. However it is believed that a SARA would be a much more feasible target to achieve by 2015; SARA would then create the conditions for LARA.
■ Intensifying the governmental influence on research:
LAC countries have little dependence on support from donors. National funding tends to be committed to salaries and basic institutional costs, but not so much for RTD-related activities. Donors provide funding; some logistical inputs and some sponsorship of training in a few key areas of their interest but this does not give them a strong influence over the type of research. More recently strong emphasis is put on demonstrating progress towards the UN Millennium Goals and greater control and requirements from donors are expected to be required.

Step 5 The ENSOCIO-LA Knowledge Platform
A ‘Knowledge Platform’ was developed as part of the ENSOCIO-LA project work to help support and promote EU-LAC collaboration. The platform contains details of all of the projects surveyed and investigated during the ENSOCIO-LA project, along with additional information such as potential funding sources, barriers to research etc. All of the data has been structured within an online database, allowing the user to search according to different terms and categories of information.

Figure 2 Screen shot showing the Knowledge Platform user interface
The icons (and hence knowledge / search areas) include the following categories:
- Past and ongoing EU-LAC projects
- Research collaboration organisations
- Research funding opportunities
- Research networks
- Conferences and events
- Research collaboration under Horizon 2020
- EU-CELAC Joint Initiative
- Barriers to research collaboration and industry uptake
- Register to receive eNews
Having developed and populated the platform during the ENSOCIO-LA project, steps have been taken to import the platform into the ALCUE NET project website as a means of sustaining operation and potentially updating the platform in the coming years.
To access the platform see www.ensocio-la.eu or www.alcuenet.eu
For more information on this stage of work see ENSOCIO-LA Reports:
WP7-Dl-13-1 The ENSOCIO Knowledge Platform
WP7-Dl-13-5 Plan for ensuring follow up activity beyond the project duration

Potential Impact:
Potential Impacts
At the outset the anticipated impacts of the ENSOCIO-LA project included:
a) To establish a more strategic, integrated and sustainable research and innovation collaboration in the field of climate change, resource efficiency and raw materials between the EU and LAC
b) Stimulation of future integrated and strategic cooperation activities
c) Mobilisation of financial means from various sources
d) Enhanced uptake and use of research and research results for meeting societal challenges in bi-regional and bilateral mutual priorities.
e) Supporting policy advice and agenda setting

Formal EU-LAC research collaboration in the three topic areas specified is currently structured according to the Joint Initiative for Research and Innovation (JIRI). This programme operates through a series of working groups, supported by thematic and cooperation support projects. As a thematic project, ENSOCIO-LA has supported the Biodiversity / Climate Change working group objectives, by helping to specify research needs and priorities and through supporting communication and collaboration between researchers. ENSOCIO-LA has also linked closely with the ALCUE NET and ERANet-LAC projects, both of which support implementation of the overall JIRI. Hence ENSOCIO-LA has played its role in supporting progression of the JIRI.
More specifically, upon completion of the work, the project has:
• Created a strong network of links spanning the thematic topic areas between the EU and LAC project team members;
• Raised the visibility of both LAC partners and research potential within the EU and EU organisations within the LAC area
• Supported direct contact with ~ 60 past/current EU – LAC projects within the thematic areas, promoting wider dissemination of their work and encouraging refinement and uptake of their research.
• Supported networking between EU and LAC researchers, resulting in research specifications and programme submissions
• Provided recommendations for research priorities to the Horizon 2020 programme and specifically to the second call of the ERANet-LAC project programme
• Provided recommendations supporting the EU-CELAC SOM process and specifically the biodiversity and climate change working group.
• Created a platform of information (the ENSOCIO-LA Knowledge Platform) which will continue to facilitate EU-LAC collaboration into the future and within which there are details of ~500 EU-LAC projects, information on EU-LAC funding programmes and other supporting material
An opportunity now exists to take the knowledge base developed during the project and to continue to enhance and expand that information to support ongoing and future EU-LAC research collaboration.

List of Websites:
Access to More Information

All of the project reports and data / knowledge generated during the project can be accessed via the project website and Knowledge Platform, which can be found at:
www.ensocio-la.eu
This website will be maintained online until at least 2020.

Email enquiries may also be directed to mark.morris@samuifrance.com

The Knowledge Platform may also be accessed via the ALCUE NET website at:
www.alcuenet.eu