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Integrated Optic Quantum Random Number Generators

Final Report Summary - QRNG (Integrated Optic Quantum Random Number Generators)

In the Project, we developed a novel QRNG based on random bit extraction of Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) of Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA). We utilized fast (i.e. 10GHz bandwidth) OE conversion with an InGaAs PDs and TIAs. Randomness characteristics of ASE have further been analyzed by means of autocorrelation and Fourier analysis. Random bits that were extracted based on threshold detection passed most of the randomness tests (NIST suits), promising scalable fast QRNG modules for OTP and related applications.

Final results show promising improvement for fast QRNGs for communication trust and security as well as diverse scientific and commercial applications. Host institution has already introduced a new QRNG product for cryptology applications. Further studies on the Project will promise an improved QRNG module in terms of bit rate and size and reliability. Such fast QRNGs will enable AES network security improvement by true randomness and faster key generation rates in comparison to PRNGs for secure communication applications.

Work progress and achievements during the period: Our main objective of the project was to develop a high-performance QRNG based on ASE of EDFA as well as realize scalability of such generator by means of AWG based spectral combing. In the first period of the project, we carried out initial work on all tasks (Tasks 1-5) stated in Annex I of the GA using Erbium Doped Fibers (EDF) instead of Erbium-Yb Doped Waveguides (EDWA). For the second period, we worked on Task 4 (Design, optimization, and implementation of random bit extraction via ADC upon OE conversion) and 5 (i.e. Performance evaluations of the QRNGs' performance based on industry standards statistical test suits).
In the light of the objectives for the Project, there are some deviations and delays regarding research progress and related tasks, however, these deviations have not affected the main objectives of the Project. In regards to the first deviation, EDFs were employed for the amplification medium instead of EDWA due to the ease of commercial availability of EDFs. Another minor deviation is that we showed the QRNG results for a single channel and postponed the scalability studies of the bit rate via parallel channel operations with AWG as future research due to the time constraints.

Impact: Project results showed the feasibility of improvement over QRNGs for fast communication trust and security as well as diverse scientific and commercial applications. The host institution has introduced a new QRNG product, based on single-photon detection utilizing Poissonian photon statistics, for cryptology key distribution applications in 2015 (for more info, please see website: https://bilgem.tubitak.gov.tr/en/urunler/quantum-rng-quantum-based-random-number-generator). Further studies on the Project will promise improvement on QRNG modules in terms of bit rate and size and reliability compared to the one that employs single-photon detection techniques. Such QRNGs promise to improve AES network security by replacing PRNGs to avoid security risks due to poor randomness and low key generation rates for secure communication applications.

Transfer of knowledge to the Host Institution: Researcher, Dr. Aydin Yeniay, has joined the quantum cryptology group as a fiber optics communication expert in 2013. The researcher helped establish a fiber optics and quantum optics laboratories with external funding, aiming to develop fiber optic-based quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. Researcher help hiring new junior and senior researchers and train them for fiber optics and QKD fields via weekly seminars and workshops. Also, the re-integration progress of the researcher has been satisfactory. With the CIG Project, the researcher has managed to obtain a permanent position with a 'chief researcher' title and get a further promotion with the project manager position in Electro-optic and Laser Systems group at TUBITAK BILGEM. Besides the CIG project, the researcher currently works on several related photonics R&D projects within a multi¬disciplinary team. The researcher has been mentoring several young scientists at Electro-optics Systems research group, where approximately 40 researchers over 16 of whom having Ph.D. degrees in Physics, Computer Science and Electronic Engineering

Project Management: Project QRNG is an externally-funded research project at host institution TUBITAK BILGEM. The re-integration progress of the researcher Aydin Yeniay has been satisfactory. The researcher has managed to obtain a permanent position with a 'chief researcher' title and get a further promotion with the project manager position in Electro-optic and Laser Systems group at TUBITAK BILGEM. Besides the CIG project, researcher currently works on several related photonics R&D projects within a multi¬disciplinary team. The researcher has been mentoring several young scientists at the Electro-optics Systems research group, where approximately 40 researchers over 16 of whom having Ph.D. degrees in Physics, Computer Science, Control and Electronic Engineering fields.
Recently, a joint project with Ozyegin University titled “Quantum Network” (Kuantum Ağı, 1003 Project# 18E992, 118E993) has been selected for funding in February 2020. The “Quantum Network” project aims to establish communication security between two terminals by establishing entanglement based QKD on demand via a quantum key distributing (QKD) module. The implementation of entanglement based QKD with a real-time embedded system, aiming to work towards the ultimate goal of a wide-range quantum network.
In regards to the commercialization of proposed research, TUTEL (Integrated Circuit Design and Education Laboratory) at TUBITAK BILGEM has been involved with the implementation and analysis of the QRNG. TUTEL has extensive experience in the integration of QRNGs to digital microprocessors and the capability of fast prototyping of such devices (for more info, please see website: http://tutel.bilgem.tubitak.gov.tr/. Additionally, TUTEL has the expertise for cryptanalysis research to reveal the security weaknesses of RNGs published in the literature.
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