Summary report regarding the feasibility of different emitter structures for the direct growth of III-V nanowires with low interface resistance (< 10 mOhmcm) and low emitter recombination in the silicon sub-cell. Especially the feasibility of the back-end processing has to be shown and potential consequences for the nano-wire growth will be discussed. The report will present experimental results of at least 3 different single-junction silicon solar cell designs with different emitter structure including Quantum Efficiency and IV-characteristics of devices. Measurements of emitter profiles, surface roughness and defectivity will be presented.
Depending on optical simulations as well as electro-optical characterization performed in WP6 it is likely that pattern parameters (pitch, diameters or shape of particles) will need to be optimized. Also a close link to the partners doing the epitaxy in WP2 will be important to have a feedback to optimize the quality of the catalyst arrays. The report will describe the measures being taken to meet these demands.
The templates are defined using metal particle etch-masks and sacrificial layers compatible with a Si PV cell substrate.
The status of the different patterning methods will be reported here with respect to yield and feasibility of the methods for large scale area patterning of active catalyst materials (patterning of metal particles on minimum 90 % of a 2’’ wafer). Process parameter window will be stated as well as dimensions with respect to catalyst diameter and pitch achievable. The report will include an assessment on the quality of NWs grown from the catalysts with respect to optical properties, life time of carriers and PL energy and luminescence intensity.
Summary report regarding the feasibility of different emitter structures for the transfer of III-V nanowires to Silicon with low interface resistance and low emitter recombination in the silicon sub-cell. Especially the feasibility of the back-end processing has to be shown. The surface has to be suitable for attaching the III-V nano-wires (planarity, low roughness, no contamination) and realize low ohmic resistance and low parasitic absorption (< 10%).
Achieved yield, density and size distribution of nanoparticles with requirement of up to 200 nm in diameter, and a feasibility assessment regarding their use as Aerotaxy seed particles.
Publishable summary of D4.3
The deliverable will summarize the electrical and optical characterizations performed on the nanowire multi-junction cells. Besides the calibration at standard testing conditions (STC, AM1.5g) also measurements under varying intensity and temperature will be performed. Additionally absorption and uniformity mapping results will be summarized
A comprehensive evaluation of all impacts of the Nano-Tandem project will be provided covering all scientific, technological and industrial outcomes of the project.
Publishable summary of D7.1
Publishable summary of D4.1
Report on the electrical properties of Esaki diodes between axial NW segments The report will contain the results achieved on Esaki tunnelling diodes with respect to low bias resistance and the maximum doping achieved in the materials which will be related to the doping level necessary for degenerate doping. Dopant incorporation homogeneity will be included, as well as the results from Hall type of characterization, CV characterization, back gated type of measurements as well as resistivity in the materials.
This report will summarize the first calibrated efficiency measurements performed on nanowire multi-junction cells at standard testing conditions (STC AM1.5g spectrum). The measurements are performed using calibration routines for multi-junction solar cells and include measurements of Quantum efficiency, active cell area and IV-characteristics under a spectrally adjustable simulator.
The deliverable will include description of growth schemes for optimal pattern preservation (> 95% vertically standing NWs), details on synthesis of the different materials with respect to materials composition and quality as a function of precursor molar fractions and growth temperature (PL emission at band gap of 1.7 eV for GaInP and GaAsP). It will also contain details on achieved doping levels in the nanowire materials grown by the different methods and details of the contact region between the substrate and the nanowires as determined by XRD and TEM, and results from wafer recycling (at least 3 times substrate re-use verified).
Publishabe summary of D2.1
This includes the effect of the different dopants (TESn, H2S, CP2Mg and DEZn on the growth dynamics and dopant incorporation if the ternary NW materials (targeted n type degenerate doping of 1x1019 for n and p type GaInP and GaAsP). It will contain an evaluation of the feasibility of using the different dopants and will lead to a choice of dopant for use in the project. The feasibility of using the different dopants in an Esaki diode in combination with the degenerately doped substrate, and in between segments in the NW will be evaluated (Esaki tunneling diode in 1 mm2 cells characterized).
Publishable summary of D7.3
Publishable summary of D7.2
The deliverable will summarize the adaption that need to be performed to the measurement equipment at ISE CalLab in order to measure the nanowire multi-junction cells. This included an adaption of the bias light for EQE measurement and verification of the suitability of the multisource simulator or potential adaption of its simulator spectrum to measure nano-wire solar cells with up to 4 cm2 area
The deliverable will contain electrical design recommendation for a high-efficiency tandem solar cell. The design variables include the doping profile in the nanowire and in the substrate and requirements on surface passivation quality, emitter and base thickness as well as the electrical properties of contact and insulation layers. A table summarizing the theoretical design specifications will be included.
Progress report about the realization of the integration of light trapping structures into the Silicon bottom cell. This will allow current matching to the used top cell design. Special attention needs to be paid to checking the feasibility of the back-end processing. Performance of the light trapping will be confirmed by producing silicon test solar cell devices (> 1 cm2) and measurement of reflection properties and Quantum Efficiency in the spectral range of 300–1250 nm. The current enhancement induced by the light trapping structure will be at least 1 mA/cm2.
D6.2 Report on suitable geometry and material of nanowire array subcell The deliverable will contain recommendation of suitable III–V material for the nanowires, the geometry of the nanowires (nanowire diameter and length, and array period), and design for the processing layers for electrical contacting in order to maximize the conventional Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit of the multi-junction tandem solar cell. These recommendations are used for deciding on the geometry for the solar cell in M24 (MS3)
The deliverable will contain details on growth of nanowire tandem solar cells by use of the in MS2.1 selected growth method. The structure will be described; including the choice of all parameter for the optimized structure including obtained doping levels, crystal structure, reproducibility and photovoltaic efficiency (target 25% efficiency on minimum 2x2 cm2 area).
A first exploitation plan will be settled at month 36 and updated up to the end of the project.
Publishable summary of D4.2
This will describe the dissemination (Task 8.1) in detail.
The final exploitation plan will be delivered at Month 48 with extensive updates with respect to the preliminary version at Month 36.
One international workshop will be arranged by ULUND during the second half of the project to disseminate the scientific results and create a link with other PV projects in Europe.
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Author(s): Romain Cariou, Jan Benick, Frank Feldmann, Oliver Höhn, Hubert Hauser, Paul Beutel, Nasser Razek, Markus Wimplinger, Benedikt Bläsi, David Lackner, Martin Hermle, Gerald Siefer, Stefan W. Glunz, Andreas W. Bett, Frank Dimroth
Published in: Nature Energy, Issue 3/4, 2018, Page(s) 326-333, ISSN 2058-7546
Author(s): Georgios Pallas, Willie Peijnenburg, Jeroen Guinée, Reinout Heijungs, Martina Vijver
Published in: Sustainability, Issue 10/3, 2018, Page(s) 689, ISSN 2071-1050
Author(s): Stephan Wirths, Benedikt F. Mayer, Heinz Schmid, Marilyne Sousa, Johannes Gooth, Heike Riel, Kirsten E. Moselund
Published in: ACS Nano, Issue 12/3, 2018, Page(s) 2169-2175, ISSN 1936-0851
Author(s): E. Barrigón, O. Hultin, D. Lindgren, F. Yadegari, M. H. Magnusson, L. Samuelson, L. I. M. Johansson, M. T. Björk
Published in: Nano Letters, Issue 18/2, 2017, Page(s) 1088-1092, ISSN 1530-6984
Author(s): Yang Chen, Pyry Kivisaari, Mats-Erik Pistol, Nicklas Anttu
Published in: Nanotechnology, Issue 29/4, 2018, Page(s) 045401, ISSN 0957-4484
Author(s): Mohammad Karimi, Magnus Heurlin, Steven Limpert, Vishal Jain, Xulu Zeng, Irene Geijselaers, Ali Nowzari, Ying Fu, Lars Samuelson, Heiner Linke, Magnus T. Borgström, Håkan Pettersson
Published in: Nano Letters, Issue 18/1, 2017, Page(s) 365-372, ISSN 1530-6984
Author(s): Moritz Knoedler, Nicolas Bologna, Heinz Schmid, Mattias Borg, Kirsten E. Moselund, Stephan Wirths, Marta D. Rossell, Heike Riel
Published in: Crystal Growth & Design, Issue 17/12, 2017, Page(s) 6297-6302, ISSN 1528-7483
Author(s): Vishal Jain, Magnus Heurlin, Enrique Barrigon, Lorenzo Bosco, Ali Nowzari, Shishir Shroff, Virginia Boix, Mohammad Karimi, Reza J. Jam, Alexander Berg, Lars Samuelson, Magnus T. Borgström, Federico Capasso, Håkan Pettersson
Published in: ACS Photonics, Issue 4/11, 2017, Page(s) 2693-2698, ISSN 2330-4022
Author(s): Yang Chen, Oliver Höhn, Nico Tucher, Mats-Erik Pistol, Nicklas Anttu
Published in: Optics Express, Issue 25/16, 2017, Page(s) A665, ISSN 1094-4087
Author(s): Mohammad Karimi, Vishal Jain, Magnus Heurlin, Ali Nowzari, Laiq Hussain, David Lindgren, Jan Eric Stehr, Irina A. Buyanova, Anders Gustafsson, Lars Samuelson, Magnus T. Borgström, Håkan Pettersson
Published in: Nano Letters, Issue 17/6, 2017, Page(s) 3356-3362, ISSN 1530-6984
Author(s): Nicklas Anttu, Vilgailė Dagytė, Xulu Zeng, Gaute Otnes, Magnus Borgström
Published in: Nanotechnology, Issue 28/20, 2017, Page(s) 205203, ISSN 0957-4484
Author(s): Gaute Otnes, Magnus Heurlin, Xulu Zeng, Magnus T. Borgström
Published in: Nano Letters, Issue 17/2, 2017, Page(s) 702-707, ISSN 1530-6984
Author(s): Olof Hultin, Gaute Otnes, Lars Samuelson, Kristian Storm
Published in: Nano Letters, Issue 17/2, 2017, Page(s) 1121-1126, ISSN 1530-6984
Author(s): Gaute Otnes, Magnus T. Borgström
Published in: Nano Today, Issue 12, 2017, Page(s) 31-45, ISSN 1748-0132
Author(s): Xulu Zeng, Renato T Mourão, Gaute Otnes, Olof Hultin, Vilgailė Dagytė, Magnus Heurlin, Magnus T Borgström
Published in: Nanotechnology, Issue 29/25, 2018, Page(s) 255701, ISSN 0957-4484
Author(s): Xulu Zeng, Gaute Otnes, Magnus Heurlin, Renato T. Mourão, Magnus T. Borgström
Published in: Nano Research, Issue 11/5, 2018, Page(s) 2523-2531, ISSN 1998-0124
Author(s): Gaute Otnes, Enrique Barrigón, Christian Sundvall, K. Erik Svensson, Magnus Heurlin, Gerald Siefer, Lars Samuelson, Ingvar Åberg, Magnus T. Borgström
Published in: Nano Letters, Issue 18/5, 2018, Page(s) 3038-3046, ISSN 1530-6984
Author(s): Magnus T. Borgstrom, Martin H. Magnusson, Frank Dimroth, Gerald Siefer, Oliver Hohn, Heike Riel, Heinz Schmid, Stephan Wirths, Mikael Bjork, Ingvar Aberg, Willie Peijnenburg, Martina Vijver, Maria Tchernycheva, Valerio Piazza, Lars Samuelson
Published in: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, Issue Volume: 8, Issue: 3, 2018, Page(s) 1-8, ISSN 2156-3381
Author(s): Yang Chen, Pyry Kivisaari, Mats-Erik Pistol, Nicklas Anttu
Published in: Nanotechnology, Issue 27/43, 2016, Page(s) 435404, ISSN 0957-4484
Author(s): Omid Madani Ghahfarokhi, Nicklas Anttu, Lars Samuelson, Ingvar Aberg
Published in: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, Issue 6/6, 2016, Page(s) 1502-1508, ISSN 2156-3381
Author(s): Yang Chen, Mats-Erik Pistol, Nicklas Anttu
Published in: Scientific Reports, Issue 6, 2016, Page(s) 32349, ISSN 2045-2322
Author(s): Gaute Otnes, Magnus Heurlin, Mariusz Graczyk, Jesper Wallentin, Daniel Jacobsson, Alexander Berg, Ivan Maximov, Magnus T. Borgström
Published in: Nano Research, Issue 9/10, 2016, Page(s) 2852-2861, ISSN 1998-0124
Author(s): Tuomas Haggren, Gaute Otnes, Renato Mourão, Vilgaile Dagyte, Olof Hultin, Fredrik Lindelöw, Magnus Borgström, Lars Samuelson
Published in: Journal of Crystal Growth, Issue 451, 2016, Page(s) 18-26, ISSN 0022-0248
Author(s): Wondwosen Metaferia, Axel R. Persson, Kilian Mergenthaler, Fangfang Yang, Wei Zhang, Arkady Yartsev, Reine Wallenberg, Mats-Erik Pistol, Knut Deppert, Lars Samuelson, Martin H. Magnusson
Published in: Nano Letters, Issue 16/9, 2016, Page(s) 5701-5707, ISSN 1530-6984
Author(s): Vilgailė Dagytė, Nicklas Anttu
Published in: Nanotechnology, Issue 30/2, 2019, Page(s) 025710, ISSN 0957-4484
Author(s): Valerio Piazza, Marco Vettori, Ahmed Ali Ahmed, Pierre Lavenus, Fabien Bayle, Nicolas Chauvin, François H. Julien, Philippe Regreny, Gilles Patriarche, Alain Fave, Michel Gendry, Maria Tchernycheva
Published in: Nanoscale, Issue 10/43, 2018, Page(s) 20207-20217, ISSN 2040-3364
Author(s): Nicklas Anttu, Pyry Kivisaari, Yang Chen
Published in: Journal of Physics Communications, Issue 3/5, 2019, Page(s) 055009, ISSN 2399-6528
Author(s): Enrique Barrigón, Magnus Heurlin, Zhaoxia Bi, Bo Monemar, Lars Samuelson
Published in: Chemical Reviews, Issue 119/15, 2019, Page(s) 9170-9220, ISSN 0009-2665
Author(s): Cristina Cordoba, Xulu Zeng, Daniel Wolf, Axel Lubk, Enrique Barrigón, Magnus T. Borgström, Karen L. Kavanagh
Published in: Nano Letters, Issue 19/6, 2019, Page(s) 3490-3497, ISSN 1530-6984
Author(s): Valerio Piazza, Andrey V Babichev, Lorenzo Mancini, Martina Morassi, Patrick Quach, Fabien Bayle, Ludovic Largeau, François H Julien, Pierre Rale, Stéphane Collin, Jean-Christophe Harmand, Noelle Gogneau, Maria Tchernycheva
Published in: Nanotechnology, Issue 30/21, 2019, Page(s) 214006, ISSN 0957-4484
Author(s): Vilgailė Dagytė, Magnus Heurlin, Xulu Zeng, Magnus T Borgström
Published in: Nanotechnology, Issue 29/39, 2018, Page(s) 394001, ISSN 0957-4484
Author(s): Nicolas Bologna, Stephan Wirths, Luca Francaviglia, Marco Campanini, Heinz Schmid, Vasileios Theofylaktopoulos, Kirsten E. Moselund, Anna Fontcuberta i Morral, Rolf Erni, Heike Riel, Marta D. Rossell
Published in: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Issue 10/38, 2018, Page(s) 32588-32596, ISSN 1944-8244
Author(s): Wondwosen Metaferia, Sudhakar Sivakumar, Axel R Persson, Irene Geijselaers, L Reine Wallenberg, Knut Deppert, Lars Samuelson, Martin H Magnusson
Published in: Nanotechnology, Issue 29/28, 2018, Page(s) 285601, ISSN 0957-4484
Author(s): Axel R. Persson, Wondwosen Metaferia, Sudhakar Sivakumar, Lars Samuelson, Martin H. Magnusson, Reine Wallenberg
Published in: Small, Issue 14/33, 2018, Page(s) 1801285, ISSN 1613-6810
Author(s): Nicklas Anttu
Published in: Optics Letters, Issue 41/7, 2016, Page(s) 1494, ISSN 0146-9592
Author(s): Benedikt Bläsi, Oliver Höhn, Hubert Hauser, Romain Cariou, Jan Benick, Frank Feldmann, Paul Beutel, David Lackner, Martin Hermle, Gerald Siefer, Stefan W. Glunz, Andreas W. Bett, Frank Dimroth, Nico Tucher
Published in: Photonics for Solar Energy Systems VII, 2018, Page(s) 2
Author(s): Kirsten E. Moselund, Benedikt Mayer, Heinz Schmid, Heike Riel, Yannick Baumgartner, Stephan Wirths, Svenja Mauthe, Lukas Czornomaz, Marilyne Sousa Petit, Clarissa Convertino
Published in: Low-Dimensional Materials and Devices 2017, 2017, Page(s) 19