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Nanowire based Tandem Solar Cells

Leistungen

Report on feasibility of different emitter structures for direct growth of III–V nanowires

Summary report regarding the feasibility of different emitter structures for the direct growth of III-V nanowires with low interface resistance (< 10 mOhmcm) and low emitter recombination in the silicon sub-cell. Especially the feasibility of the back-end processing has to be shown and potential consequences for the nano-wire growth will be discussed. The report will present experimental results of at least 3 different single-junction silicon solar cell designs with different emitter structure including Quantum Efficiency and IV-characteristics of devices. Measurements of emitter profiles, surface roughness and defectivity will be presented.

Report on optimized particle patterning with redesigned master structures or processing

Depending on optical simulations as well as electro-optical characterization performed in WP6 it is likely that pattern parameters (pitch, diameters or shape of particles) will need to be optimized. Also a close link to the partners doing the epitaxy in WP2 will be important to have a feedback to optimize the quality of the catalyst arrays. The report will describe the measures being taken to meet these demands.

Report on fabrication of nanotube templates for template-assisted epitaxy on Si

The templates are defined using metal particle etch-masks and sacrificial layers compatible with a Si PV cell substrate.

Report on the status of the different NIL based techniques

The status of the different patterning methods will be reported here with respect to yield and feasibility of the methods for large scale area patterning of active catalyst materials (patterning of metal particles on minimum 90 % of a 2’’ wafer). Process parameter window will be stated as well as dimensions with respect to catalyst diameter and pitch achievable. The report will include an assessment on the quality of NWs grown from the catalysts with respect to optical properties, life time of carriers and PL energy and luminescence intensity.

Report on feasibility of different emitter structures for III-V nanowire transfer

Summary report regarding the feasibility of different emitter structures for the transfer of III-V nanowires to Silicon with low interface resistance and low emitter recombination in the silicon sub-cell. Especially the feasibility of the back-end processing has to be shown. The surface has to be suitable for attaching the III-V nano-wires (planarity, low roughness, no contamination) and realize low ohmic resistance and low parasitic absorption (< 10%).

Report on the generation and properties of aerosol particles

Achieved yield, density and size distribution of nanoparticles with requirement of up to 200 nm in diameter, and a feasibility assessment regarding their use as Aerotaxy seed particles.

Final summary report on solar cell performance

The deliverable will summarize the electrical and optical characterizations performed on the nanowire multi-junction cells. Besides the calibration at standard testing conditions (STC, AM1.5g) also measurements under varying intensity and temperature will be performed. Additionally absorption and uniformity mapping results will be summarized

Evaluation of the impact of Nano-Tandem scientific achievements

A comprehensive evaluation of all impacts of the Nano-Tandem project will be provided covering all scientific, technological and industrial outcomes of the project.

Report on the electrical properties of Esaki diodes between axial NW segments

Report on the electrical properties of Esaki diodes between axial NW segments The report will contain the results achieved on Esaki tunnelling diodes with respect to low bias resistance and the maximum doping achieved in the materials which will be related to the doping level necessary for degenerate doping. Dopant incorporation homogeneity will be included, as well as the results from Hall type of characterization, CV characterization, back gated type of measurements as well as resistivity in the materials.

First report on STC efficiency of nanowire solar cells

This report will summarize the first calibrated efficiency measurements performed on nanowire multi-junction cells at standard testing conditions (STC AM1.5g spectrum). The measurements are performed using calibration routines for multi-junction solar cells and include measurements of Quantum efficiency, active cell area and IV-characteristics under a spectrally adjustable simulator.

Report on the status of Au-assisted nanowire growth on InP and GaAs substrates and growth of nanowires by use of Aerotaxy

The deliverable will include description of growth schemes for optimal pattern preservation (> 95% vertically standing NWs), details on synthesis of the different materials with respect to materials composition and quality as a function of precursor molar fractions and growth temperature (PL emission at band gap of 1.7 eV for GaInP and GaAsP). It will also contain details on achieved doping levels in the nanowire materials grown by the different methods and details of the contact region between the substrate and the nanowires as determined by XRD and TEM, and results from wafer recycling (at least 3 times substrate re-use verified).

Report on growth of doped ternary NW materials for pn-junctions.

This includes the effect of the different dopants (TESn, H2S, CP2Mg and DEZn on the growth dynamics and dopant incorporation if the ternary NW materials (targeted n type degenerate doping of 1x1019 for n and p type GaInP and GaAsP). It will contain an evaluation of the feasibility of using the different dopants and will lead to a choice of dopant for use in the project. The feasibility of using the different dopants in an Esaki diode in combination with the degenerately doped substrate, and in between segments in the NW will be evaluated (Esaki tunneling diode in 1 mm2 cells characterized).

Report on adaption of EQE and IV measurement equipment for nanowire solar cells

The deliverable will summarize the adaption that need to be performed to the measurement equipment at ISE CalLab in order to measure the nanowire multi-junction cells. This included an adaption of the bias light for EQE measurement and verification of the suitability of the multisource simulator or potential adaption of its simulator spectrum to measure nano-wire solar cells with up to 4 cm2 area

Report on the electrical design of tandem cell

The deliverable will contain electrical design recommendation for a high-efficiency tandem solar cell. The design variables include the doping profile in the nanowire and in the substrate and requirements on surface passivation quality, emitter and base thickness as well as the electrical properties of contact and insulation layers. A table summarizing the theoretical design specifications will be included.

Report on realization of integrated light trapping structures into bottom cell

Progress report about the realization of the integration of light trapping structures into the Silicon bottom cell. This will allow current matching to the used top cell design. Special attention needs to be paid to checking the feasibility of the back-end processing. Performance of the light trapping will be confirmed by producing silicon test solar cell devices (> 1 cm2) and measurement of reflection properties and Quantum Efficiency in the spectral range of 300–1250 nm. The current enhancement induced by the light trapping structure will be at least 1 mA/cm2.

Report on suitable geometry and material of nanowire array subcell

D6.2 Report on suitable geometry and material of nanowire array subcell The deliverable will contain recommendation of suitable III–V material for the nanowires, the geometry of the nanowires (nanowire diameter and length, and array period), and design for the processing layers for electrical contacting in order to maximize the conventional Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit of the multi-junction tandem solar cell. These recommendations are used for deciding on the geometry for the solar cell in M24 (MS3)

Report on nanowire tandem junction growth for solar energy harvesting

The deliverable will contain details on growth of nanowire tandem solar cells by use of the in MS2.1 selected growth method. The structure will be described; including the choice of all parameter for the optimized structure including obtained doping levels, crystal structure, reproducibility and photovoltaic efficiency (target 25% efficiency on minimum 2x2 cm2 area).

Exploitation plan – preliminary version

A first exploitation plan will be settled at month 36 and updated up to the end of the project.

Dissemination Strategy and Plan

This will describe the dissemination (Task 8.1) in detail.

Final plan for the exploitation and dissemination of foreground

The final exploitation plan will be delivered at Month 48 with extensive updates with respect to the preliminary version at Month 36.

Organization of a workshop to support exchange of scientific and technological knowledge

One international workshop will be arranged by ULUND during the second half of the project to disseminate the scientific results and create a link with other PV projects in Europe.

Project website established

A website will be set up both for consortium members and public access. It will be regularly maintained during and after the project duration, in order to report project activities, progress and achievements.

Veröffentlichungen

III–V-on-silicon solar cells reaching 33% photoconversion efficiency in two-terminal configuration

Autoren: Romain Cariou, Jan Benick, Frank Feldmann, Oliver Höhn, Hubert Hauser, Paul Beutel, Nasser Razek, Markus Wimplinger, Benedikt Bläsi, David Lackner, Martin Hermle, Gerald Siefer, Stefan W. Glunz, Andreas W. Bett, Frank Dimroth
Veröffentlicht in: Nature Energy, Issue 3/4, 2018, Page(s) 326-333, ISSN 2058-7546
DOI: 10.1038/s41560-018-0125-0

Green and Clean: Reviewing the Justification of Claims for Nanomaterials from a Sustainability Point of View

Autoren: Georgios Pallas, Willie Peijnenburg, Jeroen Guinée, Reinout Heijungs, Martina Vijver
Veröffentlicht in: Sustainability, Issue 10/3, 2018, Page(s) 689, ISSN 2071-1050
DOI: 10.3390/su10030689

Room-Temperature Lasing from Monolithically Integrated GaAs Microdisks on Silicon

Autoren: Stephan Wirths, Benedikt F. Mayer, Heinz Schmid, Marilyne Sousa, Johannes Gooth, Heike Riel, Kirsten E. Moselund
Veröffentlicht in: ACS Nano, Issue 12/3, 2018, Page(s) 2169-2175, ISSN 1936-0851
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.7b07911

GaAs Nanowire pn-Junctions Produced by Low-Cost and High-Throughput Aerotaxy

Autoren: E. Barrigón, O. Hultin, D. Lindgren, F. Yadegari, M. H. Magnusson, L. Samuelson, L. I. M. Johansson, M. T. Björk
Veröffentlicht in: Nano Letters, Issue 18/2, 2017, Page(s) 1088-1092, ISSN 1530-6984
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04609

Optimized efficiency in InP nanowire solar cells with accurate 1D analysis

Autoren: Yang Chen, Pyry Kivisaari, Mats-Erik Pistol, Nicklas Anttu
Veröffentlicht in: Nanotechnology, Issue 29/4, 2018, Page(s) 045401, ISSN 0957-4484
DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aa9e73

Intersubband Quantum Disc-in-Nanowire Photodetectors with Normal-Incidence Response in the Long-Wavelength Infrared

Autoren: Mohammad Karimi, Magnus Heurlin, Steven Limpert, Vishal Jain, Xulu Zeng, Irene Geijselaers, Ali Nowzari, Ying Fu, Lars Samuelson, Heiner Linke, Magnus T. Borgström, Håkan Pettersson
Veröffentlicht in: Nano Letters, Issue 18/1, 2017, Page(s) 365-372, ISSN 1530-6984
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04217

Observation of Twin-free GaAs Nanowire Growth Using Template-Assisted Selective Epitaxy

Autoren: Moritz Knoedler, Nicolas Bologna, Heinz Schmid, Mattias Borg, Kirsten E. Moselund, Stephan Wirths, Marta D. Rossell, Heike Riel
Veröffentlicht in: Crystal Growth & Design, Issue 17/12, 2017, Page(s) 6297-6302, ISSN 1528-7483
DOI: 10.1021/acs.cgd.7b00983

InP/InAsP Nanowire-Based Spatially Separate Absorption and Multiplication Avalanche Photodetectors

Autoren: Vishal Jain, Magnus Heurlin, Enrique Barrigon, Lorenzo Bosco, Ali Nowzari, Shishir Shroff, Virginia Boix, Mohammad Karimi, Reza J. Jam, Alexander Berg, Lars Samuelson, Magnus T. Borgström, Federico Capasso, Håkan Pettersson
Veröffentlicht in: ACS Photonics, Issue 4/11, 2017, Page(s) 2693-2698, ISSN 2330-4022
DOI: 10.1021/acsphotonics.7b00389

Optical analysis of a III-V-nanowire-array-on-Si dual junction solar cell

Autoren: Yang Chen, Oliver Höhn, Nico Tucher, Mats-Erik Pistol, Nicklas Anttu
Veröffentlicht in: Optics Express, Issue 25/16, 2017, Page(s) A665, ISSN 1094-4087
DOI: 10.1364/oe.25.00a665

Room-temperature InP/InAsP Quantum Discs-in-Nanowire Infrared Photodetectors

Autoren: Mohammad Karimi, Vishal Jain, Magnus Heurlin, Ali Nowzari, Laiq Hussain, David Lindgren, Jan Eric Stehr, Irina A. Buyanova, Anders Gustafsson, Lars Samuelson, Magnus T. Borgström, Håkan Pettersson
Veröffentlicht in: Nano Letters, Issue 17/6, 2017, Page(s) 3356-3362, ISSN 1530-6984
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b05114

Absorption and transmission of light in III–V nanowire arrays for tandem solar cell applications

Autoren: Nicklas Anttu, Vilgailė Dagytė, Xulu Zeng, Gaute Otnes, Magnus Borgström
Veröffentlicht in: Nanotechnology, Issue 28/20, 2017, Page(s) 205203, ISSN 0957-4484
DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aa6aee

In x Ga 1– x P Nanowire Growth Dynamics Strongly Affected by Doping Using Diethylzinc

Autoren: Gaute Otnes, Magnus Heurlin, Xulu Zeng, Magnus T. Borgström
Veröffentlicht in: Nano Letters, Issue 17/2, 2017, Page(s) 702-707, ISSN 1530-6984
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b03795

Simplifying Nanowire Hall Effect Characterization by Using a Three-Probe Device Design

Autoren: Olof Hultin, Gaute Otnes, Lars Samuelson, Kristian Storm
Veröffentlicht in: Nano Letters, Issue 17/2, 2017, Page(s) 1121-1126, ISSN 1530-6984
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04723

Towards high efficiency nanowire solar cells

Autoren: Gaute Otnes, Magnus T. Borgström
Veröffentlicht in: Nano Today, Issue 12, 2017, Page(s) 31-45, ISSN 1748-0132
DOI: 10.1016/j.nantod.2016.10.007

Electrical and optical evaluation of n -type doping in In x Ga (1− x ) P nanowires

Autoren: Xulu Zeng, Renato T Mourão, Gaute Otnes, Olof Hultin, Vilgailė Dagytė, Magnus Heurlin, Magnus T Borgström
Veröffentlicht in: Nanotechnology, Issue 29/25, 2018, Page(s) 255701, ISSN 0957-4484
DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aabaa5

InP/GaInP nanowire tunnel diodes

Autoren: Xulu Zeng, Gaute Otnes, Magnus Heurlin, Renato T. Mourão, Magnus T. Borgström
Veröffentlicht in: Nano Research, Issue 11/5, 2018, Page(s) 2523-2531, ISSN 1998-0124
DOI: 10.1007/s12274-017-1877-8

Understanding InP Nanowire Array Solar Cell Performance by Nanoprobe-Enabled Single Nanowire Measurements

Autoren: Gaute Otnes, Enrique Barrigón, Christian Sundvall, K. Erik Svensson, Magnus Heurlin, Gerald Siefer, Lars Samuelson, Ingvar Åberg, Magnus T. Borgström
Veröffentlicht in: Nano Letters, Issue 18/5, 2018, Page(s) 3038-3046, ISSN 1530-6984
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b00494

Towards Nanowire Tandem Junction Solar Cells on Silicon

Autoren: Magnus T. Borgstrom, Martin H. Magnusson, Frank Dimroth, Gerald Siefer, Oliver Hohn, Heike Riel, Heinz Schmid, Stephan Wirths, Mikael Bjork, Ingvar Aberg, Willie Peijnenburg, Martina Vijver, Maria Tchernycheva, Valerio Piazza, Lars Samuelson
Veröffentlicht in: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, Issue Volume: 8, Issue: 3, 2018, Page(s) 1-8, ISSN 2156-3381
DOI: 10.1109/jphotov.2018.2816264

Optimization of the short-circuit current in an InP nanowire array solar cell through opto-electronic modeling

Autoren: Yang Chen, Pyry Kivisaari, Mats-Erik Pistol, Nicklas Anttu
Veröffentlicht in: Nanotechnology, Issue 27/43, 2016, Page(s) 435404, ISSN 0957-4484
DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/27/43/435404

Performance of GaAs Nanowire Array Solar Cells for Varying Incidence Angles

Autoren: Omid Madani Ghahfarokhi, Nicklas Anttu, Lars Samuelson, Ingvar Aberg
Veröffentlicht in: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, Issue 6/6, 2016, Page(s) 1502-1508, ISSN 2156-3381
DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2016.2604564

Design for strong absorption in a nanowire array tandem solar cell

Autoren: Yang Chen, Mats-Erik Pistol, Nicklas Anttu
Veröffentlicht in: Scientific Reports, Issue 6, 2016, Page(s) 32349, ISSN 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/srep32349

Strategies to obtain pattern fidelity in nanowire growth from large-area surfaces patterned using nanoimprint lithography

Autoren: Gaute Otnes, Magnus Heurlin, Mariusz Graczyk, Jesper Wallentin, Daniel Jacobsson, Alexander Berg, Ivan Maximov, Magnus T. Borgström
Veröffentlicht in: Nano Research, Issue 9/10, 2016, Page(s) 2852-2861, ISSN 1998-0124
DOI: 10.1007/s12274-016-1165-z

InP nanowire p-type doping via Zinc indiffusion

Autoren: Tuomas Haggren, Gaute Otnes, Renato Mourão, Vilgaile Dagyte, Olof Hultin, Fredrik Lindelöw, Magnus Borgström, Lars Samuelson
Veröffentlicht in: Journal of Crystal Growth, Issue 451, 2016, Page(s) 18-26, ISSN 0022-0248
DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2016.06.020

GaAsP Nanowires Grown by Aerotaxy

Autoren: Wondwosen Metaferia, Axel R. Persson, Kilian Mergenthaler, Fangfang Yang, Wei Zhang, Arkady Yartsev, Reine Wallenberg, Mats-Erik Pistol, Knut Deppert, Lars Samuelson, Martin H. Magnusson
Veröffentlicht in: Nano Letters, Issue 16/9, 2016, Page(s) 5701-5707, ISSN 1530-6984
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b02367

Modal analysis of resonant and non-resonant optical response in semiconductor nanowire arrays

Autoren: Vilgailė Dagytė, Nicklas Anttu
Veröffentlicht in: Nanotechnology, Issue 30/2, 2019, Page(s) 025710, ISSN 0957-4484
DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aaea26

Nanoscale investigation of a radial p–n junction in self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires grown on Si (111)

Autoren: Valerio Piazza, Marco Vettori, Ahmed Ali Ahmed, Pierre Lavenus, Fabien Bayle, Nicolas Chauvin, François H. Julien, Philippe Regreny, Gilles Patriarche, Alain Fave, Michel Gendry, Maria Tchernycheva
Veröffentlicht in: Nanoscale, Issue 10/43, 2018, Page(s) 20207-20217, ISSN 2040-3364
DOI: 10.1039/C8NR03827A

Tailored emission to boost open-circuit voltage in solar cells

Autoren: Nicklas Anttu, Pyry Kivisaari, Yang Chen
Veröffentlicht in: Journal of Physics Communications, Issue 3/5, 2019, Page(s) 055009, ISSN 2399-6528
DOI: 10.1088/2399-6528/ab1cc4

Synthesis and Applications of III–V Nanowires

Autoren: Enrique Barrigón, Magnus Heurlin, Zhaoxia Bi, Bo Monemar, Lars Samuelson
Veröffentlicht in: Chemical Reviews, Issue 119/15, 2019, Page(s) 9170-9220, ISSN 0009-2665
DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.9b00075

Three-Dimensional Imaging of Beam-Induced Biasing of InP/GaInP Tunnel Diodes

Autoren: Cristina Cordoba, Xulu Zeng, Daniel Wolf, Axel Lubk, Enrique Barrigón, Magnus T. Borgström, Karen L. Kavanagh
Veröffentlicht in: Nano Letters, Issue 19/6, 2019, Page(s) 3490-3497, ISSN 1530-6984
DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b00249

Investigation of GaN nanowires containing AlN/GaN multiple quantum discs by EBIC and CL techniques

Autoren: Valerio Piazza, Andrey V Babichev, Lorenzo Mancini, Martina Morassi, Patrick Quach, Fabien Bayle, Ludovic Largeau, François H Julien, Pierre Rale, Stéphane Collin, Jean-Christophe Harmand, Noelle Gogneau, Maria Tchernycheva
Veröffentlicht in: Nanotechnology, Issue 30/21, 2019, Page(s) 214006, ISSN 0957-4484
DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/ab055e

Growth kinetics of Ga x In (1− x ) P nanowires using triethylgallium as Ga precursor

Autoren: Vilgailė Dagytė, Magnus Heurlin, Xulu Zeng, Magnus T Borgström
Veröffentlicht in: Nanotechnology, Issue 29/39, 2018, Page(s) 394001, ISSN 0957-4484
DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aad1d2

Dopant-Induced Modifications of Ga x In (1– x ) P Nanowire-Based p–n Junctions Monolithically Integrated on Si(111)

Autoren: Nicolas Bologna, Stephan Wirths, Luca Francaviglia, Marco Campanini, Heinz Schmid, Vasileios Theofylaktopoulos, Kirsten E. Moselund, Anna Fontcuberta i Morral, Rolf Erni, Heike Riel, Marta D. Rossell
Veröffentlicht in: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Issue 10/38, 2018, Page(s) 32588-32596, ISSN 1944-8244
DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b10770

n -type doping and morphology of GaAs nanowires in Aerotaxy

Autoren: Wondwosen Metaferia, Sudhakar Sivakumar, Axel R Persson, Irene Geijselaers, L Reine Wallenberg, Knut Deppert, Lars Samuelson, Martin H Magnusson
Veröffentlicht in: Nanotechnology, Issue 29/28, 2018, Page(s) 285601, ISSN 0957-4484
DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aabec0

Electron Tomography Reveals the Droplet Covered Surface Structure of Nanowires Grown by Aerotaxy

Autoren: Axel R. Persson, Wondwosen Metaferia, Sudhakar Sivakumar, Lars Samuelson, Martin H. Magnusson, Reine Wallenberg
Veröffentlicht in: Small, Issue 14/33, 2018, Page(s) 1801285, ISSN 1613-6810
DOI: 10.1002/smll.201801285

Connection between modeled blackbody radiation and dipole emission in large-area nanostructures

Autoren: Nicklas Anttu
Veröffentlicht in: Optics Letters, Issue 41/7, 2016, Page(s) 1494, ISSN 0146-9592
DOI: 10.1364/OL.41.001494

Photonic structures for III-V//Si multijunction solar cells with efficiency >33%

Autoren: Benedikt Bläsi, Oliver Höhn, Hubert Hauser, Romain Cariou, Jan Benick, Frank Feldmann, Paul Beutel, David Lackner, Martin Hermle, Gerald Siefer, Stefan W. Glunz, Andreas W. Bett, Frank Dimroth, Nico Tucher
Veröffentlicht in: Photonics for Solar Energy Systems VII, 2018, Page(s) 2
DOI: 10.1117/12.2307831

Monolithic integration of III-V nanostructures for electronic and photonic applications

Autoren: Kirsten E. Moselund, Benedikt Mayer, Heinz Schmid, Heike Riel, Yannick Baumgartner, Stephan Wirths, Svenja Mauthe, Lukas Czornomaz, Marilyne Sousa Petit, Clarissa Convertino
Veröffentlicht in: Low-Dimensional Materials and Devices 2017, 2017, Page(s) 19
DOI: 10.1117/12.2275871