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Modelling and strategies for the assessment and OPtimisation of Energy USage aspects of rail innovation

Periodic Reporting for period 2 - OPEUS (Modelling and strategies for the assessment and OPtimisation of Energy USage aspects of rail innovation)

Período documentado: 2018-05-01 hasta 2019-10-31

The project began on 1st November 2016 with the aim of developing a simulation methodology and accompanying modelling tool to evaluate, improve and optimise the energy consumption of rail systems with a particular focus on in-vehicle innovation.
Six partners from five different EU countries have come together to work collaboratively towards six main project objectives:

• To define a simplified but universal energy requirements outlook for European urban rail systems.
• To develop a comprehensive rail energy usage simulation methodology.
• To develop an energy consumption simulation modelling tool for assessment purposes and applicable to urban, regional, high speed and freight duty cycles.
• To further assess the role and optimisation potential of driver advisory systems (DAS) in relation to control strategies for different representative duty cycles and traction types.
• To further assess the potential for energy usage optimisation of novel technologies (e.g. next generation ESSs) and strategies (e.g. engine power-off at low loads).
• To provide a critique of the energy consumption outlook for railway systems.
OPEUS has delivered its objectives through seven technical Work Packages (WPs), summarised as follows:

• WP1 defining the urban rail systems energy requirements in Europe;
• WP2 defining and developing a theoretical simulation model based upon the previously developed SP7 tool (TRL3, from the CleanER-D FP6 project), validated to become the OPEUS tool (TRL5);
• WP3 has developed reference scenarios corresponding to urban, regional, high speed and freight operations. These have been used to perform simulations to provide a baseline against which to assess the energy consumption profile of future innovations coming, but not exclusively, from S2R;
• WP4, WP5 and WP6 comprise studies regarding DAS, in-vehicle energy losses and advanced ESSs respectively. Initial investigations into each area have been translated into more comprehensive strategies, analyses and assessments;
• WP7 has capture the lessons learned from WPs 1 to 6 and particularly the outcomes of WP1 to describe an outlook of energy usage aspects for mainline, regional and urban rail as well as producing a position paper addressing energy implications for railway systems, including a set of recommendations.

The project has successfully organised, driven and lead consensus amongst different stakeholders to agree on a simulation methodology and tool that can be used by all, a process that has been made possible by the efforts made by both the project team and colleagues from the energy component of the member’s project FINE1. This has been translated into a clear opportunity to explore energy optimisation and decarbonisation strategies e.g. through the application of the OPEUS results to specific scenarios exploring real operational cases where the introduction of new technology (ESUs/ESSs) could bring tangible energy usage efficiency and optimisation results.
"International EU-Funded collaborative initiatives such as CleanER-D (Grant Agreement No.FP7-234338) OSIRIS (Grant agreement No. SCP1-GA-2011-284868), Roll2Rail (Grant agreement No. 636032) and RailEnergy (Grant Agreement No. TIP5-CT-2006-031458), have already successfully identified technologies able to contribute to the optimisation of energy usage as well as developing tools that support the assessment of individual solutions, both for mainline and urban applications. Other projects such as MERLIN (Grant agreement No. FP7 – 314125) have gone beyond these to provide modelling architectures for an integrated optimisation approach that includes multiple elements, dynamic forecasting supply-demand scenarios and cost considerations to support operational and strategic decisions leading to an intelligent management of energy and resources.

OPEUS has built on the outcomes of these projects. Specifically, the OPEUS approach has three components at its core:

I. the energy simulation model;
II. the energy use requirements (e.g. duty cycles)
III. the energy usage outlook and optimisation strategies recommendation.

OPEUS has integrated in its research urban and suburban rail systems which represent the most significant area where energy efficient solutions can make a remarkable contribution to overall energy optimisation goals and increasing its impact. OPEUS has performed an iterative assessment of selected innovations developed as part of the Shift2Rail MAAP. These indicate that the most positive outcome, for high speed rail services running at 250km/h as per standardised duty cycle*, the combined effect of reduced weight (about 2.4% weight reduction), improved efficiency for gearbox and converters/transformers (about +1% efficiency each) results in performance improvements related to a decrease of 2% traction energy at the wheel level, which leads to a total net energy reduction of 5.4% at the energy source**.

Overall, the main contribution of OPEUS to the decarbonisation agenda is the development of a robust, stable and readily available assessment methodology and associated tool. This tool has to be the basis on which to build a more accurate, inclusive and integrated platform supporting the improvement of the already excellent railway energy usage track record.

Furthermore, through the involvement of UITP, UIC, S2R and the coordinator, OPEUS has prepared a position paper providing a clear outlook on the energy optimisation and efficiency prospect of European Rail Systems. The document concludes that only a holistic approach to energy efficiency will deliver substantial benefits towards decarbonisation. Technical measures and improvements have a key role to play in this strategy, as demonstrated in the OPEUS project. However, it is of paramount importance to frame these efforts in a wider picture consisting of:

• Land-use and urban planning approach with mobility policy and a systematic support to the most energy-efficient rail modes;
• A regulatory framework and financial incentives supporting decarbonisation and an energy/emission transition towards decarbonisation;
• Technical improvements of assets and operation, including the procurement of clean energy source where relevant and possible;
• Continued support to integrated joint activities aiming at the decarbonisation of transport and the use of rail as the core mode to achieve this.

A significant and positive coordinated effort is being made by the sector in addressing issues related to energy usage as illustrated in this document. It is suggested that these efforts continue to be supported with an emphasis on a system approach that is two-fold:

i) underpin concerted endeavours on an avoid-shift-improve approach;
ii) maximise the potential of a holistic approach that optimises technological development with implementation strategies, let these be operational, policy, incentives or a combination of these.

The transparency and availability of the results (all deliverables are public) amplifies the impact that OPEUS has in delivering energy efficiency solutions to the rail sector.

* Baseline standardised duty cycles have been produced by a combination of the information generated by previous projects (e.g. Roll2Rail), the existing draft standard prEN50591 and the joint effort of the OPEUS-FINE1 group
** Deliverable D 3.4 ""S2R innovation second periodic assessment"""