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Upscaling and optimizing subsurface, in situ carbon mineralization as an economically viable industrial option

Deliverables

Selection of pilot gas charged seawater injection site

The report will evaluate three potential injection sites. The infrastructure (boreholes, vicinity to CO2 sources, power and water) will be evaluated with the aim of quantifying the probability of pilot CO2 injection sucess. All relevant geological information on the sites will be collected to assess the feasibility of these sites. The deliverable is related to Task T4.5.

Report on remediation strategy and best practices

The report will collect all monitoring data of injection parameters (flow, pressure and temperature) as well as chemistry of injected fluids and place them in context with data collected with the high resolution seismometer network and soil flux measurements. The report will investigate responses of the reservoir due to different initiation procedures of gas injection and identify most successful methods of preventing gas leaks through the injection wells. The deliverable is related to task T3.6.

Report on induced seismicity

Report on to what extent injecion of dissolved gases can cause induced seismicity and what can be done to minimize seismic events. The deliverable is related to tasks T3.3 and T3.6.

Baseline calibration of selected gas charged seawater injection site

The report will deliver results of soil flux measurements and chemical compostion of reservoir waters sampled during tracer tests at the selected injection site enabling determination of baseline conditions prior to any CO2 injection. The deliverable is related to task T4.7

Project Management and Innovation management plan

The project management and innovation management plan contains the description of partners’ roles, project procedures, structure and interaction of work‐packages, project schedule and innovation management strategy. The plan includes a schedule per task, responsible partner related subtasks, related deliverables, and dependencies on other tasks. The plan will be updated in months 18 and 30. The deliverable is linked to tasks T1.1 and T1.2.

Literature review of the behaviour of CO2-charged seawater on the reactivity of submarine basalts

A large effort has been made over the past several decades measuring experimentally the rates and extent of water-marine basalt interaction as a function of temperature. These papers wil be review to 1) provide a current description of the state-of-the-art and 2) to provide predictions of the behavoir of planned sub-seaflor injections. Deliverables include a) a report of the literature review, b) evaluation of the degree to which past experimental observations match predictions made by available geochemical modelling codes (e.g. PHREEQC) and c) recommendation for further experimenal work to be carried out by CarbFix2.

Report on the rate, extent and consequences and reaction in the subsurface determined by reactive transport modelling

Reactive transport modeling will be used to predict the rate and consequences of injecting CO2 into sub seafloor basalts. We will deliver a report of the results of this modelling effort available to the public on a dedicated website.

Procedure for communicating with authorities in response of unusual or significant changes in injection

Report on development and implementation of communication procedure, in cooperation with relevant authorities and nearby community leaders, for informing the authorities as well as the public of unusual or significant changes in injection which might lead to seismic events. The deliverable is related to task T6.4.

Calibrated reactive transport model of submarine injection at the selected injection site

3D numerical models predicting the fate and reaction of CO2-H2S-seawater fluids injected under seabed will be developed in Task 4.6 and the results will be reported in D4.6. These simulations will be based on real hydrogeological data from the selected site offshore Reykjavic and will include the prediction of the extent of CO2 mineralisation and the reaction rates. The outcome presented in this deliverable must be the basis of further actions for the future deployment of under-seabed CO2 storage.

Report on CO2-SO2/H2S storage capacity within basaltic rocks in Europe and globally

Report on CO2-SO2/H2S storage capacity in basaltic rocks in Europe and globally. The deliverable is related to task T5.3.

CO2 and H2S soil flux measurement report

Soil flux measurements are carried out regularly to confirm that no leaks occur from the injection reservoir through the surface. The deliverable is related to tasks T3.1 and T3.3. This deliverable will be delivered in months 18 and 36.

Report on the effect of gas purity on solubility and mineral storage

The injection of CO2 gas stream with variable amount of impurities will be simulated with the reservoir model developed for deliverable D3.2 hence allowing the prediction of enhancement and/or inhibition of CO2 mineralisation at different locations in the reservoir. The deliverable is related to task T3.5

Report on the development of a seawater-based CO2-rich gas prototype capture system

The report will describe the construction of lab scale CO2 absorption tower relying on operation parameters from the capture plant on Hellisheidi but using sea-water as capture media. The task is related to task T4.3

Report on tracer breakthrough, characterization of transport processes and mineralization in reservoir

The report will contain results of tracer breakthrough in all monitoring wells to date which will quantify flow path volumes with the aid of the COMSOL code therefore enabling more accurate quantification of mineralisation of industrial scale CO2 injection. The deliverable is related to tasks T3.3, T3.4 and T3.5.

Dissemination reports

Summary of dissemination activities and publications for each reporting period. The deliverable will be handed in after months 18, 30 and 42. The deliverable is related to tasks T6.1-T6.8.

Public outreach forum 1

Running two international public outreach forums. The first one will take place around month 21 and the second around month 36. The deliverable is related to tasks T6.5 and T6.6.

Release of upgraded educational website and app

Upgrading of educational website and game aimed at informing children ages 5-14 of carbon capture and storage and transforming the educational software into readily used apps. This deliverable is related to task T6.8.

Website activated

Creation and regular updating of the CarbFix2 website. The deliverable is related to tasks T6.1 and T6.2.

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Publications

Reaction path modelling of in-situ mineralisation of CO 2 at the CarbFix site at Hellisheidi, SW-Iceland

Author(s): Sandra Ó. Snæbjörnsdóttir, Sigurdur R. Gislason, Iwona M. Galeczka, Eric H. Oelkers
Published in: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Issue 220, 2018, Page(s) 348-366, ISSN 0016-7037
DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2017.09.053

Towards ‘green’ geothermal energy: Co-mineralization of carbon and sulfur in geothermal reservoirs

Author(s): Chiara Marieni, Jan Přikryl, Edda Sif Aradóttir, Ingvi Gunnarsson, Andri Stefánsson
Published in: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Issue 77, 2018, Page(s) 96-105, ISSN 1750-5836
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2018.07.011

Carbon sequestration potential of altered mafic reservoirs

Author(s): Chiara Marieni, Eric Oelkers
Published in: Energy Procedia, Issue 146, 2018, Page(s) 68-73, ISSN 1876-6102
DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2018.07.010

Carbon mineral storage in seawater: Ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) columns in Greenland

Author(s): Gabrielle J. Stockmann, Eemu Ranta, Erik Trampe, Erik Sturkell, Paul Seaman
Published in: Energy Procedia, Issue 146, 2018, Page(s) 59-67, ISSN 1876-6102
DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2018.07.009

A brief history of CarbFix: Challenges and victories of the project’s pilot phase

Author(s): Sigurdur R. Gíslason, Hólmfrídur Sigurdardóttir, Edda Sif Aradóttir, Eric H. Oelkers
Published in: Energy Procedia, Issue 146, 2018, Page(s) 103-114, ISSN 1876-6102
DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2018.07.014

Evaluation and refinement of thermodynamic databases for mineral carbonation

Author(s): Martin Voigt, Chiara Marieni, Deirdre E. Clark, Sigurður R. Gíslason, Eric H. Oelkers
Published in: Energy Procedia, Issue 146, 2018, Page(s) 81-91, ISSN 1876-6102
DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2018.07.012

CarbFix – public engagement and transparency

Author(s): Edda Sif Pind Aradóttir, Eiríkur Hjálmarsson
Published in: Energy Procedia, Issue 146, 2018, Page(s) 115-120, ISSN 1876-6102
DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2018.07.015

The chemistry and potential reactivity of the CO2-H2S charged injected waters at the basaltic CarbFix2 site, Iceland

Author(s): Deirdre E. Clark, Ingvi Gunnarsson, Edda S. Aradóttir, Magnús Þ. Arnarson, Þorsteinn A. Þorgeirsson, Sigrún S. Sigurðardóttir, Bergur Sigfússon, Sandra Ó. Snæbjörnsdóttir, Eric H. Oelkers, Sigurður R. Gíslason
Published in: Energy Procedia, Issue 146, 2018, Page(s) 121-128, ISSN 1876-6102
DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2018.07.016

Reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide at Hellisheidi power plant in 2014-2017 and the role of CarbFix in achieving the 2040 Iceland climate goals

Author(s): Bergur Sigfússon, Magnús Þór Arnarson, Sandra Ósk Snæbjörnsdóttir, Marta Rós Karlsdóttir, Edda Sif Aradóttir, Ingvi Gunnarsson
Published in: Energy Procedia, Issue 146, 2018, Page(s) 135-145, ISSN 1876-6102
DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2018.07.018

Creating a carbon dioxide removal solution by combining rapid mineralization of CO2 with direct air capture

Author(s): Valentin Gutknecht, Sandra Ósk Snæbjörnsdóttir, Bergur Sigfússon, Edda Sif Aradóttir, Louise Charles
Published in: Energy Procedia, Issue 146, 2018, Page(s) 129-134, ISSN 1876-6102
DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2018.07.017

The geology and hydrology of the CarbFix2 site, SW-Iceland

Author(s): Sandra Ó. Snæbjörnsdóttir, Sigrún Tómasdóttir, Bergur Sigfússon, Edda Sif Aradóttir, Gunnar Gunnarsson, Auli Niemi, Farzad Basirat, Benoît Dessirier, Sigurdur R. Gislason, Eric H. Oelkers, Hjalti Franzson
Published in: Energy Procedia, Issue 146, 2018, Page(s) 146-157, ISSN 1876-6102
DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2018.07.019

Using stable Mg isotope signatures to assess the fate of magnesium during the in situ mineralisation of CO2 and H2S at the CarbFix site in SW-Iceland

Author(s): Eric H. Oelkers, Rhiannon Butcher, Philip A.E. Pogge von Strandmann, Jan A. Schuessler, Friedhelm von Blanckenburg, Sandra Ó. Snæbjörnsdóttir, Kiflom Mesfin, Edda Sif Aradóttir, Ingvi Gunnarsson, Bergur Sigfússon, Einar Gunnlaugsson, Juerg M. Matter, Martin Stute, Sigurdur R. Gislason
Published in: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Issue 245, 2019, Page(s) 542-555, ISSN 0016-7037
DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2018.11.011

Rapid CO2 mineralisation into calcite at the CarbFix storage site quantified using calcium isotopes

Author(s): Philip A. E. Pogge von Strandmann, Kevin W. Burton, Sandra O. Snæbjörnsdóttir, Bergur Sigfússon, Edda S. Aradóttir, Ingvi Gunnarsson, Helgi A. Alfredsson, Kiflom G. Mesfin, Eric H. Oelkers, Sigurður R. Gislason
Published in: Nature Communications, Issue 10/1, 2019, ISSN 2041-1723
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-10003-8

Experimental observations of CO2-water-basaltic glass interaction in a large column reactor experiment at 50 °C

Author(s): Deirdre E. Clark, Iwona M. Galeczka, Knud Dideriksen, Martin J. Voigt, Domenik Wolff-Boenisch, Sigurdur R. Gislason
Published in: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Issue 89, 2019, Page(s) 9-19, ISSN 1750-5836
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2019.07.007

The Role of Direct Air Capture in Mitigation of Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Author(s): Christoph Beuttler, Louise Charles, Jan Wurzbacher
Published in: Frontiers in Climate, Issue 1, 2019, ISSN 2624-9553
DOI: 10.3389/fclim.2019.00010

Carbon dioxide storage through mineral carbonation

Author(s): Sandra Ó. Snæbjörnsdóttir, Bergur Sigfússon, Chiara Marieni, David Goldberg, Sigurður R. Gislason, Eric H. Oelkers
Published in: Nature Reviews Earth & Environment, Issue 1/2, 2020, Page(s) 90-102, ISSN 2662-138X
DOI: 10.1038/s43017-019-0011-8

Modelling the Complex Structural Features Controlling Fluid Flow at the CarbFix2 Reinjection Site, Hellisheiði Geothermal Power Plant, SW-Iceland

Author(s): Thomas M.P Ratouis, Sandra O. Snæbjörnsdóttir, Gunnar Gunnarsson, Ingvi Gunnarsson, Bjarni R. Kristjánsson, and Edda S.P. Aradóttir
Published in: PROCEEDINGS, 44th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, 2019

The role of atmospheric CDR in Swiss climate policy - fundamentals and recommended actions

Author(s): Federal Office for the Environment
Published in: 2019