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Safe Robot Navigation in Dense Crowds

Deliverables

Experiment protocol and risk assessment

Experiment protocol and risk assessment

Final integrated system, including simulation, crowd navigation for experimental scenario

Final integrated system including simulation crowd navigation for experimental scenario

Shared control navigation

Shared control navigation

Final evaluation report

Final evaluation report

Specification of Scenarios Requirements

Specification of Scenarios Requirements

Project website

Project website

Proceedings of ESAB workshops and report on ethical protocols

Proceedings of ESAB workshops and report on ethical protocols

Report on physical interactions between robots and humans

Report on physical interactions between robots and humans

Sensor specification

Sensor specification

Overview of risks when using robots in crowds

Overview of risks when using robots in crowds

System architecture

System architecture

Crowd simulator - final version

Crowd simulator final version

Initial Communication, dissemination and exploitation plan

Initial Communication, dissemination and exploitation plan

Robust localization and mapping

Robust localization and mapping

Crowd simulator - intermediate version

Crowd simulator - intermediate version

Second updated and extended integrated robot system with smart environment sensory communication and situation assessment capability for experimental scenario

Second updated and extended integrated robot system with smart environment sensory communication and situation assessment capability for experimental scenario

Local interaction-aware motion planning

Local interaction-aware motion planning

Reactive motion planning

Reactive motion planning

CROWDBOT challenge

CROWDBOT challenge

Social navigation

Social navigation

First basic integrated robot system prototype in experimental scenario

First basic integrated robot system prototype in experimental scenario

Local sensing first prototype

Local sensing first prototype

Initial evaluation report

Initial evaluation report

First release of the localization, mapping and local motion planning

First release of the localization, mapping and local motion planning

Local sensing system

Local sensing system

Specification update

Specification update

Publications

Safe Human-Robot Interaction Through Crowd Contact Video Analysis

Author(s): Fernando Garcia, Alexandre Mazel, Arturo Cruz Maya
Published in: Social Robotics - 11th International Conference, ICSR 2019, Madrid, Spain, November 26–29, 2019, Proceedings, 11876, 2019, Page(s) 588-598, ISBN 978-3-030-35887-7
Publisher: Springer International Publishing
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-35888-4_55

Towards Dialogue-Based Navigation with Multivariate Adaptation Driven by Intention and Politeness for Social Robots

Author(s): Chandrakant Bothe, Fernando Garcia, Arturo Cruz Maya, Amit Kumar Pandey, Stefan Wermter
Published in: Social Robotics - 10th International Conference, ICSR 2018, Qingdao, China, November 28 - 30, 2018, Proceedings, 11357, 2018, Page(s) 230-240, ISBN 978-3-030-05203-4
Publisher: Springer International Publishing
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-05204-1_23

Autonomy vs. Safety in Shared Control Crowd Navigation

Author(s): Eberle, H.; Zhang, B.; Mathibela, B.; Walker, G.; Teodorescu, C.; Holloway, C.; Carlson, T.
Published in: In: Proceedings of the 29th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Ro-Man 2020. 29th IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, Ro-Man 2020: Naples, Italy. (2020) (In press)., 2, 2020
Publisher: RO-MAN

Domain and Modality Gaps for LiDAR-based Person Detection on Mobile Robots

Author(s): Dan Jia, Alexander Hermans, Bastian Leibe
Published in: arXiv pre-publication, 2021
Publisher: arXiv pre-publication

Physical Safety in Collisions Between Robots and Pedestrians

Author(s): Paez-Granados, Diego Felipe; Gonon, David; Salvini, Pericle; Billard, Aude
Published in: IEEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (ROMAN-2020) Workshop on Robots from Pathways to Crowds (Virtual conference), 2020
Publisher: ROMAN-2020
DOI: 10.13140/rg.2.2.28087.55209

On the Safety of Mobile Robots Serving in Public Spaces, Identifying gaps in EN ISO 13482:2014 and calling for a new standard

Author(s): Pericle Salvini, Diego Paez-Granados, Aude Billard
Published in: ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction (THRI), 2020
Publisher: ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction (THRI)

UNDER REVIEW - Reinforcement Learning Based Shared-Control Navigation

Author(s): Zhang, B., Holloway, C., Carlson, T.
Published in: ICRA 2022, 2022
Publisher: ICRA 2022

Robot Navigation in Crowded Environments Using Deep Reinforcement Learning

Author(s): Liu, Lucia; Dugas, Daniel; Cesari, Gianluca; Siegwart, Roland; Dubé, Renaud
Published in: IROS 2020, 2020
Publisher: IROS

From HRI to CRI: Crowd Robot Interaction - understanding the effect of robots on crowd motion

Author(s): Zhang, B., Amirian, J., Eberle, H., Pettré, J., Holloway, C., & Carlson, T.
Published in: International Journal of Social Robotics 2021, 2021
Publisher: International Journal of Social Robotics 2021
DOI: 10.1007/s12369-021-00812-7

Understanding mental models in robot navigation: A shared-controlled wheelchair case study

Author(s): Zhang, Bingqing; Holloway, Catherine; Carlson, Tom
Published in: Workshop on Mental Models of Robots at HRI 2020, 2020
Publisher: HRI

Proactive-cooperative Navigation in Human-like Environment for Autonomous Robots

Author(s): Paolo Salaris; Wanting Jin; Philippe Martinet
Published in: ICINCO 2020 - 17th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics, Jul 2020, Paris / Online, France, 1, 2020
Publisher: ICINCO 2020
DOI: 10.5220/0009822004120419

OpenTraj: Assessing Prediction Complexity in Human Trajectories Datasets

Author(s): Javad Amirian, Bingqing Zhang, Francisco Valente Castro, Juan Jose Baldelomar, Jean-Bernard Hayet, Julien Pettre
Published in: ACCV2020, 2020
Publisher: arxiv

The Impact of Agent Definitions and Interactions on Multiagent Learning for Coordination

Author(s): Chung, Jen Jen; Miklić, Damjan; Sabattini, Lorenzo; Tumer, Kagan; Siegwart, Roland
Published in: AAMAS '19 Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and MultiAgent Systems, 2, 2019
Publisher: IFAAMAS
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-b-000358306

IAN: Multi-Behavior Navigation Planning for Robots in Real, Crowded Environments

Author(s): Dugas, Daniel; Nieto, Juan; Siegwart, Roland; Chung, Jen Jen
Published in: IROS 2020, 2020
Publisher: IROS

PLANNED - Crowd Navigation and Analysis of Pedestrian Response to Reactive Navigation Controllers

Author(s): Paez-Granados D., He Y., Gonon D., Huber L., & Billard A.
Published in: IROS2022, 2022
Publisher: IROS2022

A hierarchical design for shared-control wheelchair navigation in dynamic environments

Author(s): Zhang, Bingqing; Holloway, Catherine; Carlson, Tom
Published in: SMC 2020, 2020
Publisher: SMC

Enabling Socially Competent navigation through incorporating HRI

Author(s): Cruz-Maya, Arturo; Garcia, Fernando; Pandey, Amit Kumar
Published in: HRI 2019, 1, 2019
Publisher: HRI

PLANNED - What we see and What we don't see: Imputing Occluded Crowd Structures from Robot Sensing

Author(s): J Amirian, JB Hayet, J Pettre
Published in: arXiv pre-publication, 2021
Publisher: arXiv pre-publication

Robust Sensor Fault Detection for a Shared Control Wheelchair

Author(s): Eberle, H., & Carlson, T.
Published in: RehabWeek 2021, 2021
Publisher: RehabWeek 2021

An ‘Ethical Black Box’, Learning From Disagreement in Shared Control Systems

Author(s): Eberle, H., Zhang, B., Teodorescu, C., Walker, G., & Carlson, T.
Published in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference On Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC) 2021, 2021
Publisher: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference On Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC) 2021

Visual Person Understanding through Multi-Task and Multi-Dataset Learning

Author(s): Kilian Pfeiffer, Alexander Hermans, Istvan Sarandi, Mark Weber, Bastian Leibe
Published in: GCPR 2019, 2019
Publisher: GCPR 2019
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-33676-9_39

NavRep: Unsupervised Representations for Reinforcement Learning of Robot Navigation in Dynamic Human Environments

Author(s): Daniel Dugas, Juan Nieto, Roland Siegwart and Jen Jen Chung
Published in: 2021 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2021
Publisher: ICRA2021
DOI: 10.1109/icra48506.2021.9560951

Generalized Microscropic Crowd Simulation using Costs in Velocity Space

Author(s): Wouter van Toll, Fabien Grzeskowiak, Axel López Gandía, Javad Amirian, Florian Berton, Julien Bruneau, Beatriz Cabrero Daniel, Alberto Jovane, Julien Pettré
Published in: Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, 2020, Page(s) 1-9, ISBN 9781450375894
Publisher: ACM
DOI: 10.1145/3384382.3384532

PLANNED - NavRep3D: Reinforcement Learning for Camera-based Navigation among Humans

Author(s): Daniel Dugas, Olov Andersson, Roland Siegwart and Jen Jen Chung
Published in: IROS2022, 2022
Publisher: IROS2022

Unfreezing Social Navigation : Dynamical Systems based Compliance for Contact Control in Robot Navigation

Author(s): Paez-Granados D., Gupta V. & Billard A.
Published in: Robotics Science and Systems (RSS) - Workshop on Social Robot Navigation, 2021
Publisher: Robotics Science and Systems (RSS) - Workshop on Social Robot Navigation

Social ways: Learning multi-modal distributions of pedestrian trajectories with GANs

Author(s): Amirian, Javad; Hayet, Jean-Baptiste; Pettré, Julien
Published in: IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops, 2019
Publisher: CVPR 2019

Shared-control in Wheelchairs – Building Interaction Bridges

Author(s): Zhang, B.; Holloway, C.; Carlson, T.; Ramirez Herrera, R.
Published in: In: CHI '19 Workshop: Weaving the Threads of Vehicle Automation. ACM: Glasgow, UK. (2019) (In press)., 1, 2019
Publisher: CHI

Self-Supervised Person Detection in 2D Range Data using a Calibrated Camera

Author(s): Dan Jia, Mats Steinweg, Alexander Hermans, Bastian Leibe
Published in: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) 2021, 2021
Publisher: ICRA 2021
DOI: 10.1109/icra48506.2021.9561699

UNDER REVIEW - Unfreezing Social Navigation : Dynamical Systems based Compliance for Contact Control in Robot Navigation

Author(s): Paez-Granados D., Gupta V. & Billard A.
Published in: ICRA 2022, 2022
Publisher: ICRA 2022

STEm-Seg: Spatio-Temporal Embeddings for Instance Segmentation in Videos

Author(s): Ali Athar, Sabarinath Mahadevan, Aljos̆a Os̆ep, Laura Leal-Taixé, Bastian Leibe
Published in: Computer Vision – ECCV 2020 - 16th European Conference, Glasgow, UK, August 23–28, 2020, Proceedings, Part XI, 12356, 2020, Page(s) 158-177, ISBN 978-3-030-58620-1
Publisher: Springer International Publishing
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-58621-8_10

The Impact of Agent Definitions and Interactions on Multiagent Learning for Coordination

Author(s): Jen Jen Chung, Damjan Miklić, Lorenzo Sabattini, Kagan Tumer, Roland Siegwart
Published in: Proceedings of the 18thInternational Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2019), 2019
Publisher: IFAAMAS

Towards Dialogue-Based Navigation with Multivariate Adaptation Driven by Intention and Politeness for Social Robots

Author(s): Chandrakant Bothe, Fernando Garcia, Arturo Cruz Maya, Amit Kumar Pandey, Stefan Wermter
Published in: International Conference on Social Robotics, 2018
Publisher: Springer

A Data-driven Model for Interaction-aware Pedestrian Motion Prediction in Object Cluttered Environments

Author(s): Mark Pfeiffer, Giuseppe Paolo, Hannes Sommer, Juan Nieto, Roland Siegwart, Cesar Cadena
Published in: Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2018
Publisher: IEEE

Avoidance of Convex and Concave Obstacles with Convergence ensured through Contraction

Author(s): Huber, L., Billard, A. and Slotine, J.-J.
Published in: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L), 2019
Publisher: IEEE

Iteratively Trained Interactive Segmentation

Author(s): Mahadevan, Sabarinath; Voigtlaender, Paul; Leibe, Bastian
Published in: British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC), 1, 2018
Publisher: BMVA

DR-SPAAM: A Spatial-Attention and Auto-regressive Model for Person Detection in 2D Range Data

Author(s): Jia, Dan; Hermans, Alexander; Leibe, Bastian
Published in: International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 1, 2020
Publisher: IEEE/RSJ

STEm-Seg: Spatio-temporal Embeddings for Instance Segmentation in Videos

Author(s): Ali Athar, Sabarinath Mahadevan, Aljosa Osep, Laura Leal-Taixe, Bastian Leibe
Published in: European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), 2020
Publisher: Springer

Making a Case for 3D Convolutions for Object Segmentation in Videos

Author(s): Sabarinath Mahadevan, Ali Athar, Aljosa Osep, Sebastian Hennen, Laura Leal-Taixe, Bastian Leibe
Published in: British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC), 2020
Publisher: BMVA

Crowd against the machine: A simulation-based benchmark tool to evaluate and compare robot capabilities to navigate a human crowd

Author(s): Fabien Grzeskowiak, David Gonon, Daniel Dugas, Diego Paez-Granados, Jen Chung, Juan Nieto, Roland Siegwart, Aude Billard, Marie Babel, Julien Pettré
Published in: ICRA 2021, 2021
Publisher: ICRA 2021

Toward Virtual Reality-based Evaluation of Robot Navigation among People

Author(s): Grzeskowiak, Fabien; Babel, Marie; Bruneau, Julien; Pettre, Julien
Published in: 2020 IEEE VR, 2020
Publisher: IEEE VR

Data-Driven Crowd Simulation with Generative Adversarial Networks

Author(s): Javad Amirian, Wouter van Toll, Jean-Bernard Hayet, Julien Pettré
Published in: Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Computer Animation and Social Agents - CASA '19, 2019, Page(s) 7-10, ISBN 9781450371599
Publisher: ACM Press
DOI: 10.1145/3328756.3328769

UNDER REVIEW - Estimating risks posed by personal mobility devices and service robots to pedestrians : comparative crash testing on adult and child dummies

Author(s): Paez-Granados D. & Billard A.
Published in: 2022
Publisher: Journal

From freezing to jostling robots: Current challenges and new paradigms for safe robot navigation in dense crowds

Author(s): Pettré, Julien; Babel, Marie; Hayet, Jean-Bernard; Salaris, Paolo; Salvini, Pericle
Published in: IROS 2018, 2018
Publisher: IROS

PLANNED - Flowbot: Flow-based Modelling of Crowds for Robot Navigation Planning

Author(s): Daniel Dugas, Olov Andersson, Roland Siegwart and Jen Jen Chung
Published in: IROS2022, 2022
Publisher: IROS2022

Investigating the effects of social interactive behaviours of a robot on people’s trust during a navigation task

Author(s): Alessandra Rossi, Fernando Garcia, Arturo Cruz Maya, Kerstin Dautenhahn, Kheng Lee Koay, Michael L. Walters, and Amit K. Pandey
Published in: Annual Conference Towards Autonomous Robotic Systems 2019, 2019
Publisher: Springer

Wait for me! Towards socially assistive walk companions

Author(s): Garcia, Fernando; Pandey, Amit Kumar; Fattal, Charles
Published in: HRI 2019, 2, 2019
Publisher: HRI

Person-MinkUNet: 3D Person Detection with LiDAR Point Cloud

Author(s): Dan Jia, Bastian Leibe
Published in: IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops (CVPRW), 2021, 2021
Publisher: CVPRW 2021

A Data-driven Model for Interaction-Aware Pedestrian Motion Prediction in Object Cluttered Environments

Author(s): Mark Pfeiffer, Giuseppe Paolo, Hannes Sommer, Juan Nieto, Rol Siegwart, Cesar Cadena
Published in: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2018, Page(s) 1-8, ISBN 978-1-5386-3081-5
Publisher: IEEE
DOI: 10.1109/ICRA.2018.8461157

Design requirements and challenges for intelligent power wheelchair use in crowds: learning from expert wheelchair users

Author(s): Zhang, B., Eberle, H., Holloway, C., & Carlson, T.
Published in: Proceedings of the RESNA Annual Conference 2021., 2021
Publisher: Proceedings of the RESNA Annual Conference 2021.

Crowd against the machine: A simulation-based benchmark tool to evaluate and compare robot capabilities to navigate a human crowd.

Author(s): F. Grzeskowiak, D. Gonon, D. Dugas, D. Paez-Granados, J. J. Chung, J. Nieto, R. Siegwart, A. Billard, M. Babel and J. Pettré
Published in: 2021 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2021
Publisher: ICRA2021
DOI: 10.1109/icra48506.2021.9561694

CONDITIONAL ACCEPT - Understanding Interactions for Smart Wheelchair Navigation in Crowds

Author(s): Zhang, B., Herrera, R., Barbareschi, G., Carlson, T., Holloway, C
Published in: CHI 2022, 2022
Publisher: CHI 2022

Safety Concerns Emerging from Robots Navigating in Crowded Pedestrian Areas

Author(s): Salvini, Pericle; Paez-Granados, Diego Felipe; Billard, Aude
Published in: International Journal of Social Robotics 2020, 2020
Publisher: International Journal of Social Robotics 2020

STEm-Seg: Spatio-temporal Embeddings for Instance Segmentation in Videos

Author(s): Athar, Ali; Mahadevan, Sabarinath; Ošep, Aljoša; Leal-Taixé, Laura; Leibe, Bastian
Published in: European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), 10, 2020
Publisher: Springer

MeTRAbs: Metric-Scale Truncation-Robust Heatmaps for Absolute 3D Human Pose Estimation

Author(s): Istvan Sarandi, Timm Linder, Kai Oliver Arras, Bastian Leibe
Published in: IEEE Transactions on Biometrics, Behavior, and Identity Science, 3/1, 2021, Page(s) 16-30, ISSN 2637-6407
Publisher: IEEE Transactions on Biometrics, Behavior, and Identity Science
DOI: 10.1109/tbiom.2020.3037257

Avoidance of Convex and Concave Obstacles With Convergence Ensured Through Contraction

Author(s): Lukas Huber, Aude Billard, Jean-Jacques Slotine
Published in: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 4/2, 2019, Page(s) 1462-1469, ISSN 2377-3766
Publisher: IEEE
DOI: 10.1109/LRA.2019.2893676

Reactive Navigation in Crowds for Non-holonomic Robots with Convex Bounding Shape

Author(s): Gonon D., Paez-Granados D. & Billard A.
Published in: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 6, 2021, Page(s) 4728 - 4735, ISSN 2377-3766
Publisher: IEEE
DOI: 10.1109/lra.2021.3068660

The impact of agent definitions and interactions on multiagent learning for coordination in traffic management domains

Author(s): Jen Jen Chung, Damjan Miklić, Lorenzo Sabattini, Kagan Tumer, Roland Siegwart
Published in: Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 34/1, 2020, ISSN 1387-2532
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
DOI: 10.1007/s10458-020-09442-1

Online Optimal Perception-Aware Trajectory Generation

Author(s): Paolo Salaris, Marco Cognetti, Riccardo Spica, Paolo Robuffo Giordano
Published in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 35/6, 2019, Page(s) 1307-1322, ISSN 1552-3098
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
DOI: 10.1109/TRO.2019.2931137

Deep Person Detection in Two-Dimensional Range Data

Author(s): Lucas Beyer, Alexander Hermans, Timm Linder, Kai O. Arras, Bastian Leibe
Published in: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 3/3, 2018, Page(s) 2726-2733, ISSN 2377-3766
Publisher: IEEE
DOI: 10.1109/lra.2018.2835510

Reinforced Imitation: Sample Efficient Deep Reinforcement Learning for Mapless Navigation by Leveraging Prior Demonstrations

Author(s): Mark Pfeiffer, Samarth Shukla, Matteo Turchetta, Cesar Cadena, Andreas Krause, Roland Siegwart, Juan Nieto
Published in: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 3/4, 2018, Page(s) 4423-4430, ISSN 2377-3766
Publisher: IEEE
DOI: 10.1109/lra.2018.2869644

Materializing Personal Standing Mobility from Design to Shared Control

Author(s): Paez-granados, D.; Billard, A.; & Suzuki, K.
Published in: 2020
Publisher: CYBATHLON Symposium. Virtual Conference

Learning to Navigate: Data-driven Motion Planning for Autonomous Ground Robots

Author(s): Pfeiffer, Mark
Published in: 2, 2018
Publisher: NA
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-b-000324253

Active SLAM in Crowded Environments

Author(s): Dario Mammolo Supervisors: Daniel Dugas, Jen Jen Chung, Mark Pfeiffer, Roland Siegwart Institution: ETH Zürich
Published in: 2019
Publisher: NA
DOI: 10.3929/ethz-b-000341706

Datasets

3D point cloud of closed-proximity pedestrians for mobile service robots

Author(s): Paez-Granados, Diego; Brudermueller, Lara; Huber, Lukas; Billard, Aude
Published in: IEEE DataPort

Mobile Service Robots Crash Testing with Pedestrians: Safety Assessment with Child and Adult Dummies

Author(s): Paez-Granados, Diego; Billard, Aude
Published in: Zenodo

Software

Software: Reactive Driving Support - CrowdBot Release

Author(s): David Gonon; Diego F. Paez G.; Aude Billard
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4545819; 10.5281/zenodo.4545820
Publisher: Zenodo