Exotic states of matter may unleash the power of quantum computing
Conventional computers encode information in the form of a series of electronic 'bits'. Each bit can have one of two values, zero or one. Like the letters of a language from which words and sentences are formed, combinations of bits encode information. Quantum computers use quantum bits, the so-called qubits, which are also represented by zeros and ones, this time corresponding to quantum states of matter; however, unlike digital bits, qubits can be in both states at the same time. The amount of information that can be stored grows exponentially with the number of bits, but so does the opportunity for error. The EU-funded NPhOMaQuCo project is exploring new phases of matter to be utilised in robust new quantum error-correcting codes in which qubits are embedded to overcome current barriers and enable solutions to problems that are currently inaccessible.