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A Comprehensive Human Animation Resource Model


Biomechanical models for soft tissue simulation

Author(s): MAUREL W (Computer Graphics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (CH)), THALMANN D (Computer Graphics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (CH)), WU Y (MIRALab, Department of Information Systems, University of Geneva (CH)), MAGNENAT THALMANN N (MIRALab, Department of Information Systems, University of Geneva (CH))
Published in: EUR 18155 EN (1998) 169pp., 1998, Page(s) 169, ISBN 3-540-63742-7

Exploitable results

CHARM is developing accurate simulations of human movement and deformation, based on physical principles to provide researchers in a number of separate fields with a comprehensive source of information on the human body and its dynamics. First, a 3-dimensional computer model of the human body is being generated which includes bones and soft tissue structures such as muscles, skin and fat. Then, associated simulation procedures are defined with which to perform deformations. Starting from the surfaces of a number of anatomical structures, model surfaces were fitted to medical images, to obtain a database validated against real anatomical features. In parallel, mechanical models of soft tissue deformation and muscle contraction were developed, based on physiological data. The combined object-oriented library of models and methods has been complemented with high level control interfaces and graphics rendering tools. CHARM encompasses the development of a specific model, for the shoulder-arm complex, and also covers the generic tools developed to build the models. 3-dimensional reconstruction of the human upper limb was based on a labelling tool, which allows semi-automatic segmentation of anatomical structures using the Visible Human project (VHD) data. The biomechanical model was constructed using an interactive topological modeller tool, which allows the user to define mechanical attributes and the topological relationships between anatomical structures. A motion simulation system of the human arm complex includes a high-level interface layer, permitting movements to be controlled using natural language expressions. Finite element modelling was used for the soft tissues and simulation of muscle contraction, while photo-realistic rendering used a ray tracer, specially developed to handle soft tissue texture deformations. Visual validation is based on comparing test sequences obtained from fluoroscope and video material with synthetically-generated movements.