Objectives and Problems to be Solved: The reduction of particle soot emissions from passenger car and truck diesel engines is target under EURO IV and Euro V. Research studies indicate that health risks and pollution is dependent both on the concentration and size of the soot particles in engine emissions. The aim of this project is to improve the understanding of soot particles formation in diesel engines. During this project, the necessary experimental techniques to measure soot particle size distributions and the software tools necessary to simulate the formation and oxidation of soot particle in high-speed diesel engines (HSDI) and heavy-duty diesel engines (HDT) will be developed. The results of the project will be used for definition and the control of future soot particle emission standards. The advances made under this project will also facilitate the production and design of truck and passenger diesel energy efficient engines which will produce very low levels of carbon dioxide. Description of the Work: One part of the work will be the provision of comprehensive experimental data in order to gain a better understanding of how the changes in engine parameters are effecting local soot formation and oxidation and how the soot particle size distribution depends on the local formation/oxidation process. Optical measurements will be carried out for different diesel engines and for a number of operating conditions. Soot particle size will be measured in the exhaust system. Another part of the work is to develop a model for the soot particle size distribution, capable of simulating the nucleation of soot particles, condensation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on the particle surface, particle coagulation under high pressure and heterogeneous surface growth and oxidation reactions in turbulent flames. This model will be implemented into different CFD codes. Further, the experimental database will be used to adjust parameters of the simulation model and to validate the CFD simulation software. Expected Results and Exploitation Plans: The project will generate simulation tools necessary for manufacturers of diesel engines to develop engines meeting future emission legislation and market demands. In the US and Japan large ongoing programmes with government funding are aiming at similar tools. There is a general understanding world wide, that simulations and advanced diagnostics will contribute significantly to future engine development. The type of project results will be: diagnostic techniques, experimental database, numerical models, implementation of models into CFD codes and assessment of the dependency of soot particle formation/oxidation on engine parameters. It is expected, that the complementation of those activities with predictive models for pollutant formation will dramatically increase the applicability of the simulation systems. Given a sufficient predictive capability numerical tools have a potential to substantially increase the efficiency of engine development in terms of costs, time to market and utilisation of optimisation potential.
Funding SchemeCSC - Cost-sharing contracts