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Archimedes 2001: 'research project and exploitation activity'


This paper reports on the results of a pilot study on comparing auditory feedback to visual and kinesthetic only feedback as the more consistent feedback type that leads to developments in kinesthesia. Development of kinesthesia is tested through a learning and transfer of learning of a new movement skill task. We defined as new movement skill a target oriented movement performed under specific conditions that do not match real life movements. The participants were 18 learning deficient children 10-12 years of age randomly spread across 3 groups There was the same number of participants across groups and gender balance within groups. All 3 groups went through two(2) Phases. In Phase I, Learning, the participant practiced the new movement across 8 trials using his/her not prevalent hand. In each trial the target was situated at different positions on the surface. In Phase I, each group performed in a different feedback Condition. In Condition A, the visual Feedback Condition (VFC), Condition B, the Auditory Feedback Condition (AFC), Condition C, No Feedback Condition, (NFC1) In Phase II, Transfer of Learning, all three groups exercise the task with their prevalent hands in a No Feedback Condition(NFC2). The number of trials available was 4 so as training effects could be inhibited. The results showed that the VFC group performed notably better than the other two groups in PhaseI (VFC:95%, AFC:15%, NFC:12%). In Phase II, though, the AFC group performed better than the other two. These results indicate that auditory feedback seems to be a consistent feedback type leading to developments in kinesthesia. Kinesthesia is associated with mental processing and the development of mental structures on both a conscious and subconscious level developed in conditions where sound information is provided as feedback for movement. Even if the sound feedback ceases to exist the user can navigate his/her movement with the aid of these mental structures. The VE consists of a SGI Octa


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