Skip to main content

Replacement of CFC's in refrigeration equipment by environmentally benign alternatives

Objective

CFC refrigerant working fluids attack the ozone layer and their utilization in future will be strongly limited.

The objective of this project is to quantify the properties of non-CFC refrigerants based on mixtures of HCFC and HFC compounds (which are planned for production) and to investigate the technical properties involved in their utilization as replacements for R22.

The outcome will be a much better understanding of the use of refrigerant mixtures with the results being presented in a manner, not available at present, which will allow them to be used directly by refrigeration designers and installers.
Equations of state for working fluids and mixtures were developed. Other equations described the physical properties, viscosities, and thermal conductivities. These equations can be used in engineering design for new refrigeration systems, together with their methods for calculating entropy and enthalpy. Studies into flammable refrigerants identified accident scenarios and presented risk calculations. These showed that maintenance is the most dangerous period, and suggested that thorough training for installers should be considered of prime importance. A new generation of synthetic oils was developed for use as compressor lubricants together with theoretical models on general compatibility between refrigerant mixtures and compatible lubricants.
The outcome will be a much better understanding of the use of refrigerant mixtures with the results being presented in a manner, not available at present, which will allow them to be used directly by refrigeration designers and installers.

Extensive studies have been carried out of single-fluid and fluid mixture replacements for R12. These have included qualification of properties and examination of lubrication effects.

The properties of suitable available and planned pure working fluids will be quantified and the vapour liquid equilibria and other thermodynamic data will be determined for carefully selected binary and tenary mixtures. This work will be carried out by Chalmers University (UC), University of Ancona (UA), CNR Istituto per la Tecnica del Freddo (ITF), Ausimont SpA (AM) and University of Las Palmas (ULP). This work will be supplemented by consideration of new factors which arise out of the need to include flammable working fluids (ITF, TNO and University of Ulster (UU), and by an important study aimed at presenting the results in a way which will allow commercial refrigeration companies to design plant using these new and much more complex working fluids (University of Hannover (UH), UU, UC, TNO, ITF).

The problems of lubrication with these complex fluids will also be investigated (UU, UH, AM, Industria Scamblatori SpA-ISC) and these investigations will include establishing thermodynamic properties of selected mixtures including the non-volatile oil component.

Finally, a small number of ancillary studies into performance evaluation, compact heat exchangers (UU, ISC), and the effect of falling film evaporators will be carried out.

Funding Scheme

CSC - Cost-sharing contracts

Coordinator

UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER
Address
Cromore Road
BT52 1SA Coleraine
United Kingdom

Participants (12)

Arneg SpA
Italy
Address
Via Venezia 58
35010 Marsango Di C.s.martino Padova
Ausimont SpA - Gruppo Montedison
Italy
Address
Piazza Donegani 5/6
15047 Alessanria - Spinetta Marengo
Chalmers University of Technology AB
Sweden
Address
3,Kemigarden 3
412 96 Göteborg
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
Italy
Address
Corso Stati Uniti 4
35127 Padova - Camin
Industria Scambiatori Calore SpA
Italy
Address
Zona Industriale
33020 Amaro Udine
Lu-Ve Contardo SpA
Italy
Address
Via Caduti Della Liberazione 53
21040 Uboldo Varese
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek
Netherlands
Address
501,Laan Van Westenenk 501
7300 AH Apeldoorn
Officine Mario Dorin SpA
Italy
Address
Via Aretina 388
50061 Compiobbi Firenze
UNIVERSITA DEGLI STUDI DI PADOVA
Italy
Address
1,Via Venezia 1
35131 Padova
Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Spain
Address

35071 Tafira Baja
Università degli Studi di Ancona
Italy
Address
Via Delle Brecce Bianche
60131 Ancona
Universität Hannover
Germany
Address
Welfengarten 1A
30167 Hannover