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Can cattle protect man from onchocerciasis? : reduction of simulium vectol capacity and crossreacting concomitant immunity as factors of zooprophylaxis

Objective



IN AN AREA 0F HIGH CATTLE DENSITY, THE ENDEMICITY 0F HUMAN ONCHOCERCIASIS WAS REMARKABLY LOW, DESPITE HIGH SIMULIUM-SQUAMOSUM BITING RATES AND ONCHOCERCA TRANSMISSION POTENTIALS, MAINLY 0F L3 FROM ONCHOCERCA OCHENGI OF CATTLE. THIS PROMPTS US TO INVESTIGATE THE POTENTIAL USE 0F NON-HUMAN BLOODHOSTS ('ZOOPROPHYLAXIS') AS A MEANS OF COMBINING RURAL DEVELOPMENT WITH CONTROL 0F HUMAN DISEASE. CATTLE AND OTHER LIFESTOCK ANIMALS WOULD CONSTITUTE AN APPARENTLY VERY WELL ACCEPTED SUBSTITUTION FOR THE HUMAN BLOOD To THE FLIES. THIS REDUCES THE VECTORIAL CAPACITY OF SIMULIUM POPULATIONS STRONGLY (H2).

AN ADDITIONAL PROTECTION MAY BE AFFORDED BY THE INVASIVE LARVAE OF O;OCHENGI, WHICH PROBABLY INVADE THE HUMAN HOST AND STIMULATE THE IMMUNE SYSTEM So THAT THE SURVIVAL IS REDUCED FOR SUBSEQUENT INADING LARVAE OF 0. VOLVULUS. ANTIGENS 0F INVADING AND OF IN-VITRO CULTURED L3 WILL BE SCREENED FOR RECOGNITION BY HUMAN AND CATTLE SERA FROM AREAS WITH AND WITHOUT HUMAN AND BOVINE ONCHOCERCIASIS. CROSSREACTIVE ANTIGENS WILL BE TESTED FOR THEIR IMMUNOGENICITY.

THE RESULTS OF THIS STUDY MAY HELP TO DEVELOP LOCAL STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATED ONCHOCERCIASIS CONTROL, WHICH COMBINE THE NEED OF DISEASE CONTROL WITH LIFESTOCK PRODUCTION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS.

THE EXISTING EXPERTISE 0F AN ON-GOING EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY
CARRIED OUT BY COLLABORATING INSTITUTIONS FROM CAMEROON AND TÜBINGEN WILL BE LINKED TO MODERN METHODS OF IMMUNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AVAILABLE IN GLASGOW AND TÜBINGEN THIS COLLABORATION SHALL BE EXTENDED BY INCLUDING A PARTNER FROM NIGERIA, WHERE A NATIONAL ONCHOCERCIASIS CONTROL PROGRAMME IS ENVISAGED:

Funding Scheme

CSC - Cost-sharing contracts

Coordinator

UNIVERSITAET HOHENHEIM
Address
Schloss 1
70599 Stuttgart
Germany

Participants (4)

Centre de Recherches Zootechniques deCameroon
Cameroon
Address

N'gaoundéré
Federal University of Technology
Nigeria
Address

Yola
Institut de Recherches Medicales et d'Etude des Plantes Medicinales
Cameroon
Address

40 Kumba
University of Strathclyde
United Kingdom
Address
Todd Centre 31 Taylor Street
G4 0NR Glasgow